Back to the Sources! – What Church Reformers Believed about
Ancient History and Why it Matters - By J.C.L. Powell
Have you ever wondered what the Reformer Martin Luther believed regarding the ancient history of our world? Surprisingly, he didn’t follow Herodotus (the so-called ‘Father of Histories’) but chose instead to critically accept considerable portions of a more detailed account which was alleged to come from Berosus the Chaldean Priest. Today, however, this account is widely considered totally spurious and Luther is believed to have been mistaken concerning its overall authenticity. In place of a biblically consistent history, a new inconsistent approach has since arisen that places the origin of humanity in the context of assumed ‘deep time’ (Shryock and Smail, 2011). This radical paradigm shift had its roots in an unorthodox study of the stone hand-axes of Hoxne in
by John Frere in 1797 ‒ and further
interpretations of axes in the River Somme, France, some six decades later. It
was then that Joseph Prestwich presented a paper to the Royal Society and John
Evans introduced ‘deep time’ to the Society of Antiquaries (Renfrew, 1976:23). During
the same year these men were advocating vast ages (i.e. 1859), Suffolk published his Origin of Species – and the rest, they say, is history. Darwin
In this article, however, I want to share with you some new evidence suggesting that Dr. Luther’s understanding was correct after all. Frere, Prestwich, Evans and Darwin have regrettably mislead generations of historians and anthropologists ever since. In place of deep time, we present a model to structure the synthesis of sources which have slowly been pieced together. Hopefully, a new generation of bible chronologists and archaeologists will be inspired to investigate this neglected archaic period for themselves - and come to similar conclusions!
Searching for the Beginning: Establishing a Numerical Time-Frame
First, a sensible beginning for human history and coincidently the beginning of cosmic time itself must be sought. If you were to pick up any ‘authoritative’ work of history or archaeology these days, be it The Times Complete History of the World, Barry Cuncliffe’s Europe Between the Oceans or J. M. Roberts’ History of the World, you would be told that history began long, long ago in the pre-human past. 700,000 years have supposedly elapsed since the beginning of human activity (c.f. Stringer (2006) and Menzies (2011), with ‘hominid’ activity stretching back 9 million years before present. These figures contrast starkly with a beginning date calculated from the inerrant Word of God – the Holy Bible - which in fact is our only sure foundation for historical knowledge. One such Scriptural approximation (valid from 2012 A.D.) is 6,274 years from the beginning of creation. This places Adam and Eve in 4266BC and the Global Cataclysm in 2610BC. How did this author arrive at these dates and how much weight should we attach to them? Well, more than 128 calculations from Scripture have at one time or another been proposed for the creation - and the arguments surrounding them are still ongoing today! The evolutionist H.G. Wells described Archbishop Ussher’s famous date of 4004BC as a ‘fantastically precise misconception’ founded upon ‘rather arbitrary theological assumptions’. In fact, Wells himself was far more arbitrary in his calculations than Ussher! Our approach at derivation probably isn’t the last word on the subject, but it did involve consulting dozens of experts and carefully weighing their arguments against numerous Scriptural references (using ‘direct equivalence’ in Hebrew translation) – so I shall try to limit an answer to just one sentence! The date 4266BC was obtained through a synthesis of authorities; concluding a superiority of the Masoretic text over the Septuagint (Jones, 2005 contra Setterfield, 1999); no gaps in the family lists of Genesis 5 and 11 (Niessen, 1982 contra Robinson, 1999); a long period of 430 years for Israel in Egypt (Bowden, 1998 contra Viccary, 2007); 594 years of sovereign theocracy from the Exodus to Solomon’s 4th year - and a Persian period of just 123 years (Austin, 2008a, 2008b and 2011 contra Jones, 1993 and Ussher, 1658 trans. 2003).
Having established a clear timeframe solely from the best biblical scholarship, the next logical step was to examine other reliable sources and carefully seek out any obvious synchronisms. Considering the wealth of contradictory yet so-called ‘reliable’ histories available at our fingertips, it was hard to know where to start! An old quotation swiftly answered this problem: “The one infallible connecting link between sacred and profane chronology is given in Jeremiah 25:1: ‘The fourth year of Jehoiakim, which was the first year of Nebuchadnezzar.’ If the events of history had been numbered forward from this point to the birth of Christ, or back from Christ to it, we should have a perfectly complete and satisfactory chronology.” (Anstey, 1913 in Mauro, 2001). Now according to
Austin’s careful Scriptural synchronisation
of the divided kingdoms of Judah
and Israel, the forth year
of Jehoiakim was 524BC - meaning that this is when Nebuchadnezzar II most
probably began his Assyrian reign ( , 2011). So
assuming a ‘short’ Persian period of 123 years, here was a significant
synchronism ‘anchor point’ on which to build a larger, more reliable timeline (c.f.
Figure 1). Austin
Meanwhile, many fragments of Ancient and Classical historians had been accrued and a long list of Assyrian/Babylonian rulers from Noah to Nebuchadnezzar’s Father drawn up – a total of precisely 42 Monarchs (in most instances with their respective regnal years from Eusebius). These rulers are also listed in Figure 1, where alternative name spellings are separated via a comma. Numbering the events of history back from 524BC, it was now possible to offer a revised chronology of this most obscure period, independent from the (spurious) high dynastic chronology of
this revived Assyrian/Babylonian chronology was pieced together a revised
history of the ancient world using all the historical and archaeological knowledge
gleaned along the way. Egypt
In terms of references, the historical and archaeological reconstruction presented in this article has been drawn from a wide array of sources ancient and modern, but special attention has been paid to Richard Lynche’s ‘An Historical Treatise of the Travels of Noah into Europe’ (Lynche, 1601). This remarkable little book, which mentions giants like Goliath (9-11 feet tall), uses phrases such as ‘our Lord Jesus Christ’ and faithfully maintains the multi-century life-spans and long virility that people reached in early times, has been criticised as deeply misconceived, poorly sourced, legendary and fictitious. To be fair, Lynche’s small volume is indeed heavily reliant upon the highly controversial work of an Italian Friar named Annius a.k.a. Giovanni Nanni (c. 1432-c. 1502), whom many scholars claim was a consummate fraudster. Nanni declared that his source, Berosus, had been the curator of the temple library at
and had access to
written records of human history back to the time of Adam. The chain of textual
transmission had been Adam, Noah, Nimrod, Berosus, Turkish monks etc. Some
scholars may therefore consider much of the following material rather worthless.
However, the very latest historical and archaeological research now appears to
be proving many of the so-called ‘fabulous’ or ‘outlandish’ claims astonishingly
accurate and Nanni is gaining far greater recognition as an authentic source! Knowing
that mud does tend to stick to scholars once thrown – and those throwing the
most of it (just after Nanni’s death) were actually secular humanists with
large axes to grind, it became necessary to personally examine Lynche’s
chronology with a fine tooth-comb. Babylon
Does this eyebrow raising chronology really stack up? Can my revised chronology of
shed any new
light on Lynches timeline of events? I will leave the reader to make up their
own mind about how well these questions have been answered. There is a complex diffusionist
story yet to tell, which few will have heard before! In reading this rich and
detailed account, bear in mind that the material you are about to consider suggests
that if Nanni were a genuine source, Lynche was correct in many historical
details, yet failed to accommodate his timeline to a robust numerical foundation
(from either Scripture or the Assyrian-Median Empires). Having provided this
foundation and added numerous details from modern sources, I personally believe
this record is reasonably accurate. Babylon
Noah’s last 350 years: 2610 – 2260 BC
Our account of ancient times begins in 2610BC with just eight people and a whole lot of animals sixteen miles south-west of Mt. Ararat and 17 miles west-south-west from the volcano known as Tendürek - in Eastern Turkey (Fasold, 1988 and Nissen, 2004). Here the Ark, looking something like a giant vegetable gourd, had come to rest 100 yards from the twin-crests of Yigityatagi (‘the cradle/bed of the heros’ also called Mount Mashu, Wall of Heaven, the ‘twin peaks’, the Minoan ‘horns’, Mount Nizir, and the ‘Island of Flame’) and its precious cargo had disembarked into Naxuan (Nachidsheuan, Noakh-Tsywn, ‘Place of First Descent’) – see Figure 3. Soon they discovered the
anchor stones and built a village there called Arzap (now Kazan) – where the first came to rest.
This became known as the ‘Place of the Eight’. After 25 years,
Noah (a.k.a. Ouranos, Oenotrus, Inachus,
Nüwa, Nanna, Ianus, Argus, Nu, Nun, Geȋnos Autochthon, Janus, Olybarma, Oxygus,
Arsa, Khasisadra, Xisuthrus, Patecatl, Manes) along with his wife Titea (a.k.a.
Tytea, Tydia, Terra, Gaw Bo-lu-en, Nut, Naamah, Naunet, Vesta, Hestia, Aretia,
Gaia, Moone, Kuvav, Kufav, Cybele, Kubaba, Kug-Bau) and family travelled
north-east from the Ararat (Kurdish) mountains and using the Ark’s anchor
stones built the megalithic monument Zorats Karer (Qarahunge) near Sisian in
they travelled south-west and built Ark
(a corruption of Arsa),
establishing a sacrificial temple in Gobekli Tepe. In
2573BC, Salah (Shelah) was born to Arphaxad (Arip-hurra, Arraphu, Arpachiya)
the son of Shem and according to God’s command, Noah encouraged the chief heads
of his family to disperse abroad into various lands. Disobeying his advice, many
family members instead
travelled south-eastward and together they found a plain in the Urfa land of Shinar
( Babylonia). There, to make a name for
themselves, they began the construction of a city with a 600-foot ziggurat
composing seven levels (and a pagan astrological temple at its pinnacle). Five
years after Peleg was born,
i.e. some 106 years after the Cataclysm, in 2504BC, God came down upon their
‘Tower of the Seven Lights of the Earth’ in a great whirlwind
and confused the people’s common language.
Upon hearing news of this event, Noah, having already moved north with Shem to plant a vineyard near Tanais (now Nedvigovka village) on the north coast of the Sea of Asov (Lake Maeotis, Maeetis) in modern-day Russia, built the very first post-flood ships and set sail with his sons on a 10 year voyage to establish boundaries. Sailing around the
of Asov and Black Sea, then through
the Dardanelles (keeping the coastline always in view), he appointed all the
lands of Asia to Shem (his middle child), all the tributaries of Africa to Ham (his
younger) - and all the tributaries of Europe
to Japheth (the elder). In this careful manner, at various key locations around
the Mediterranean Sea, Noah left small
language groups with minimal provisions (such as livestock, tools and seed).
Returning to his vineyard in
(Russia/Turkey), Noah then began to establish monarchies. Armenia
Between 2478BC and 2465BC, 5 principal monarchies were established at Noah’s command. Babylonia was established under the leadership of the young giant Nimrod (Nembroth, Ninus I, Nebrod, Nebros, Spotted-one, ‘Leopard-tamer’) the son of Cush (Khum of Erech – who’s descendants inhabited
). Saudi Arabia Germany (Almaign) was inhabited via the Danube River
settlements of Lepenski Vir and Vinča in ‒ and was established under
Tuyscon (Tuitsch), Noah’s
own son. He left Serbia Turkey with
his sibling wife (Araxa the Great – Noah’s daughter) plus 31 others and built
Koeln-Deutz ( ).
Meanwhile, the chief sons of Japheth, who first founded the city of Cologne Aleppo (Magog) in Syria,
were each given 3 monarchies in Europe. Kytim
( ) was established under Gomer
(Cormerus Gallus) the son of Japheth. Kittim, Italy Spain
was established under Tubal the son of Japheth (together with Tarshish his cousin)
- and Gallia-Samothea ( France
under Meshech (Samothes Dis) the son of Japheth. This Meshech arrived in Britain in
2446BC aged 139 years old, where he was gladly accepted by the indigenous people
Noah had first left there - who had begun to build woodland settlements. France Britain and Northern Europe
at this time were still inhospitably cold from the little ice age, and weren’t
inhabited until many centuries later. Javan
(Iamanu, Yauna, Iawones, Iawan, Yuban) the son of Japheth, together with his
son Elishah (Elisa), founded eastern parts of Greece (the Ionians)
and the Cyclades of the Aegean Sea, while Madai (Amada, Medai, Mada) founded
the Medes in western Iran.
Shem and his sons in the mid-third millennium BC also founded various settlements in
Elam (Elamtu, Elymais, Elymaei, Haltamti, Huju, Huz) founded Persia, Asshur
founded Assyria and built the city of Ur,
Arphaxad founded Chaldea, Lud founded western Asia Minor, Aram (Aramu) together
with his sons Uz, Hul (Huleh, Ul, Hula), Gether (Gather) and Mash (Mashu,
Msh’r, Mishal - from whom Damascus received its name) founded parts of Syria and
modern-day Israel. Meanwhile
in eastern China - Ham (Kronus I, Amynus, Anu, Utu, Shamash, Belus I, Phoroneus
i.e. ‘Apostate’, Ouranos II, Pan, Geb, Zoroast, Saturn, Æthiop, Atys, Attis, Hoshang,
Epigeius) instituted Feng Shan sacrifices at Mount Tai in modern day Shandong
province, under his Chinese alias of Huang-Di
(one of China’s ‘Three Sovereigns’ or ‘Fu Xi’ meaning ‘bottle gourd’ children,
the other two being Jah-phu and Shennong, or Lo Shen). Ham’s other sons
inhabited various lands: Put (Phut, Puta, Putiya, Pydw, Putu-iaman) founded
North Africa near Carthage and Canaan (Kna’an,
Kn’nw, Kyn’n.w, Kinnahu, Kinahne) settled in the land later given to (Jacob)
– south of the Aramaeans (Aramu). Israel
In 2440BC, Noah desired to visit his monarchs and so left Russia and Turkey under the leadership of Shem and his Nephew Sabatius Saga (son of Cush) and travelled to Hyrcania (Iran), Mesopotamia, Arabia Felix (Yemen) and Lybia (western Lower Egypt or the Nile Delta). From its first inhabitation in 2427BC,
was ruled jointly by 8 chiefs for 217 years and then 15 chiefs for 443 years. Here
in Egypt Egypt, Triton the son of
Gog, grandson of Sabatius Saga (Sabah) and great grandson of
entertained him. Only
months afterward, Triton died leaving Hammon (Ammon) as chief of Cush Lower Egypt. Noah gave a daughter named Rhea (Gē, Gaia,
Nammu, Neith) in marriage to Hammon and promptly set sail for to visit his grandson Tubal. By
Rhea, Hammon had an heir named Dionysius (Kronus II). Meanwhile,
in the 56th year of Jupiter Belus’s (Betylus) life (2367BC) – who
later ruled Babylon - his father Ham
grew proud ruling in Lower Egypt and decided to invade Greece (where he united
the scattered Argives into the city Phoronicum – later called Argos from Argus
his grandson – and
then Italy, usurping the throne from Ashchenaz the son of Gomer and corrupting
the youth with wicked practices. Noah – who had travelled from Spain Spain to Italy
to visit Gomer – found out about this transgression and expelled Ham’s tribe to
in the year 2342BC. Island of Sicily
In 2335BC, Noah built a city in
where over two millennia afterward the was established.
Some 65 years past, without significant recorded incident, by which time Ham had
grown powerful in Vatican .
Noah, in collaboration with Hammon of Lower Egypt, sent three daughters (Rhea,
Astarte and Dione) to the island in an attempt to overthrow him. Yet learning
of their intentions, Ham gained power over them and forcefully took them as
wives – along with two others (Eimarmene and Hora) who were sent later with
troops to make war on him.
In 2264BC, Sabatius Saga, the former regent of Sicily Armenia
who was then living in Italian exile with Noah, died. Noah himself – growing tired
and frail – appointed Cranus Razenus as his successor in Turkey . Subsequently,
the Great Patriarch died in 2260BC, precisely 350 years after the Cataclysm
(Genesis 9:28). Italy
From Abraham to Moses: 2253 – 1537 BC
Meanwhile, the perceived treachery of Hammon (Ham’s own descendent via
) filled Ham with guile. In
plotting revenge on his father’s main ally, he began construction of a fleet of
warships with his infamous son Typhon (Titan, Poseidon, Neptune). (The sons of
Poseidon were feared giants who usurped kingdoms wherever they sailed).
Across from Cush Sicily, in Mesopotamia at this
time in the city of ,
Terah fathered Abram (Abraham) (born in 2253BC),
who came from an idolatrous family but was later chosen by God to bless all
nations through the promise of the Messiah who would be born from his lineage. Three
years after the birth of Abram (Abraham), and ten years after his father’s
death, Ham seized his opportunity to dominate and invaded Ur Lower
Egypt via its sea ports. Defeating Hammon, he banished him and his
smaller ship-fleet – which fled to the Island
of Candia (later called Crete) to hide. Centuries
passed and the civilizations in Crete and began to flourish. Crete and the
volcanic Egypt Island of Thera together with western (Ammonia)
grew into the famous maritime civilization of Atlantis (Menzies, 2011), who’s
chief city was Lixus (Maqom Semes). When Abram (Abraham) reached 100 years old, in 2153BC, he
together with Sarah had Isaac – the child of God’s covenant promise. Salah the
son of Arphaxad (the son of Shem) died 13 years afterward at the age of 433
years old. Morocco
When Isaac reached 60 years old, he and his wife Rebecca had Jacob. This Jacob endured a great famine in the
land of Canaan before entering Lower Egypt
in 1963BC, under a regent of Ham named Timaus – possibly the Pharaoh who knew
Joseph. Some 30 years later, his descendents – who were known as ‘Shepherds’ ruled over by the ‘Hyk-shos’ (Anatolian Pelasgians) i.e. ‘Shepherd-Kings’ - began to be oppressed and enslaved by the
Egyptian nation (Genesis 15:13-14). The
Israelite nomads, also later called ‘Hapiru Captives’ or ‘Apiru’, continued
after Joseph - Saites, Beon, Pachnan, Staan, Archles and Aphobis. Nearly
100 years after Jacob’s entry, in 1869BC, Nimrod died at the age of 609 and
was succeeded in Babylon by Jupiter Belus (Betylus) the son of Ham, who ruled a
further 62 years. He was succeeded by the war-hungry Nynas (Ninus II)
(1807-1755BC) of the Assyrian city of ,
whose wife was Semyramis I. In
1862BC, Meshech (Samothes Dis) of Nineveh died aged 723 years old and
was succeeded by Magus his son. This Magus was the first ruler of France France and to found permanent stone townships
and to tend flocks.
He gave his name to many ancient towns including Noviomagus, now called Neufchȃteau
and Rhotomagus, now called Britain .
In 1811BC, Magus was succeeded by Sarron (Sydyk, Syduk, Sydic, Suduc, Sadykos,
Apollo) know as ‘The Just’. He married a daughter of Ham and had Asclepius (Eshmun, Imhotep, Tosorthrus – 2nd ruler of the 3rd (contemporary!) Dynasty
of Egypt, a skilled healer). Sarron and his family founded universities and places
of learning such as megalithic stone henges to carefully observe the stars - and
he was Father of the Cabiri (8 sea-fearing brothers who discovered herbs,
antidotes and charms and were venerated as healing gods throughout the
Mediterranean, Asclepius being their youngest member). Rouen
Tuyscon was succeeded by his son Mannus in 1978BC. Mannus had three sons who reined
after him, Eingeb
(Ing) from 1906BC, Ausstaeb (Istaev) from 1870BC and Herman from 1820BC. This former
Eingeb had a Semitic general in his army named Brygus (Brigus, Phrygus,
Castellum – the son of Mash, the son of Germany Aram
the Syrian, the son of Shem in Genesis 10:23) - who in 1651BC became the 4th
after the reigns of Tubal, Iberus and Eubalda (Inbalda) respectively. The
descendants of this King Brygus relocated to Spain Turkey
and founded Phrygia, where the city of Dardania ( Troy I) or Ilion (Wilios, Troy
II-VI) was later built. In Germany,
Mers, the son of Herman, began his reign in the year 1757BC and after him
Gambrivises (Gampar) reigned (1711-1667BC) as ’s seventh King. Germany
Casting our historical gaze back upon the idyllic civilization of Crete, the descendents of Hammon grew rich through a prosperous trade network of merchant-ship vessels – stretching even as far as western
and South America (via the trade winds).
In 1767BC, Ham, now extremely old, forced Rhea (Gē) in Lower Egypt to give him
his youngest son whom he named Mizraim
(Osyris, Zeus, Apis, Serapis, Sesostris, Ammanemes, Misor, Misir, Mizru, Musri,
Kronus III, Kumarbi, Demaroon, Dionysus II, Danaus, Jupiter Ammon, Jupiter of
Acts 14:12, Hammurapi of Babylon?, Menes
the Thinite, Bacchus, Aithiopais, Ramesses II, Misphragmuthosis,
Alisphragmuthosis, Armesses, Armais, Epaphus, Epopeus, Enlil, Enki, Elus, Ea, Ilus,
Thamus). The very next year, however, Dionysius (Kronus II) the aforementioned
son of Hammon, sailed from Crete and took back Lower Egypt (Memphis, Avaris,
Heliopolis etc) from Ham by siege. In the siege, baby Mizraim was seized and
Dionysius adopted his infant half-brother as his own child. Being kindly
towards Mizraim he appointed his elder brother Dagon (a skilled tutor also
called Olympicus, Oannes, Siton) to train him. Humiliated
by defeat, Ham together with his infamous son Typhon (Set, Seth, Suphis,
Sethos, Sethon, Sethosis, Poseidon, Ophion, Neptune, Chebros, Cheops, Ramesses
I, Chembres, Chebres, Zu, Anzu, Imdugud) - from his first wife Noegla - fled to
an obscure part of Upper Egypt (Nubia/Ethiopia – possibly Thebes). In 1755BC,
the same year in which Semyramis I became Queen of Babylon,
Ham had a daughter by Rhea whom he named Isis (Ceres, Iuno, Juno, Io, Frugisera,
Legisera, Feronia). Soon afterward, he grew discontented in Ethiopia and left Typhon in charge so he could take
leave to travel far-east once again and subdue the country of Bactria ( ). Before this, however,
he had appointed a large area of Afghanistan to his wife Astarte (Aphrodite,
Venus, Ashteroth of Genesis 14:5, Inanna, Ishtar). The young Isis travelled from
Upper Egypt to this Astarte in Greece
via the south-west Mediterranean trade current. There, she was made a Priestess
of Hera in the city of Greece .
In these days the Minoan/Pelasgian cult of the bull was popular in Argos Egypt and throughout the Mediterranean, and
Astarte, together with Isis, wore a replica bull’s
head with horns as a mark of sovereignty whilst travelling – as is still attested
by certain stone reliefs until this day.
In 1705BC, after the death of Queen Semyramis I and in the 8th year of the reign of her son Ninus III (Ninyas, Zames, Horus, Ninus the Younger) of
Mizraim unified Upper and Lower Egypt through a marriage contracted with his
sister Isis – who was taken from
to be with him. A year later, they had their eldest son in Lower Egypt whom
they called Lehabim (Hercules, Heracles, Lubicus, Sesosis II, Horus, Hermes
Trismegistus, Athothes, Thoth, Taautus, Tantalus, Thoor, Thoyth, Teshub, Sandes,
Dorsanes, Sol Deus, Samdan, Melicarthus, Melkarth, Melqart, Baal of Tyre,
Marrhus, Marduk, Merodach, Moeris, Myris, Moloch of the sons of Ammon, Mercury,
Mercurius of Acts 14:12, Ma-fors, Mavors, Osymandes, Ismandes, Mendes, Lachares,
Orus, Athur, Oro, Odin, Ninurta, Ningirsu, Adad, Hadad, Asarluhhi, Ishkur,
Pathrusim). This union and child angered Typhon (Titan) of Upper Egypt, who still
saw Argos Lower Egypt as his rightful inheritance. Fierce
war between Lower (Olympian) and Upper (Titan) Egypt ensued for 19 years, Typhon
engaging in successful border invasions (beginning the drawn-out ‘Ethiopic War’) with
his younger half-brother Mizraim - whom he despised as illegitimate. Mizraim
(Apis), in turn, despised the foreign ‘Shepherds’ or ‘Hapiru/Apiru’ who were still
inhabiting his kingdom and posing a potential foe. By this time he had forced
them into the city of  (‘Sacred
to Orus’, Athur, Athur-ai, Abur, Abaris, Cercasora) and enslaved them in his
work-force for over 200 years, but they were growing both in strength and
number. In 1685BC, Ham and Typhon together invaded Assyria and Babylonia from Avaris Bactria ( Afghanistan)
and Ethiopia, but their
pincer attack was repelled by Ninus III and they were forced to retreat towards
(western Turkey/Anatolia). Lydia
Earlier that same year, Mizraim had sought to instruct foreign populations in the great learning of Lower Egypt and to establish his eldest son as heir of all
. Setting off on a 9 year
a large multi-national army lead by Lehabim, his eldest son, and Athena
(Minerva, Myrina) his daughter (Queen of the Amazons),
he taught those in Palestine (under his elder brother Dagon)) advanced skills
of agricultural farming, and thereafter set sail for Phutea (Ammonia, north-west
Africa or Morocco) to subdue a rebellion and invasion of Egypt by the
civilization of Atlantis (whose Moroccan civilisation - Ammonia - under Hammon had
previously been usurped by one Antheus (Antaeus, Atlas) the tyrannical son of
Ham and subsequently devastated by an Atlantic Tsunami - which had also
destroyed Isis’s (Juno’s) Athenian fleet of Greeks who were then at war with
Here, Mizraim’s army was opposed by Antheus ,
yet he was defeated by Lehabim in single combat, during which battle he picked
his opponent up, crushed him to death and threw him into a deep cavern in the
earth and buried him with flints, after
which their army passed quietly into Ethiopia, the Persian Gulf/Red Sea and then
on into India (where on two mountains at the mouth of the Ganges they set up
pillars). From there, they heard of Ham and Typhon’s attack on Assyria and so passed
rapidly northwards into Egypt Babylonia. Hearing
from Ninus III (Ninyas) about Ham and Typhon’s retreat towards Phrygia (Turkey),
Mizraim, Lehabim and a contingent of Babylonian soldiers led by prince Arius (Agron,
the son of Ninyas pressed ahead and overtook Ham laying an ambush for his
father near the spring of Eflatun Pinar (in central Turkey). There, having
surrounded Ham (Atys, Attis) unawares, Mizraim castrated him - and his blood
flowing into the spring, he died of the wound.
Moving into the city of Mansia, near Mount Sipylus
( Olympus), Mizraim (Zeus) pursued after
Typhon. Yet Mizraim’s tyrannical grandson Busiris (Belus, son of one Libya, who was a daughter of Ephaphus (Apophis))
was approaching from Syria
(Phonecia, Canaan) in the South. In response
to this, Mizraim appointed Lehabim’s son Balaneus (Alcaeus, Alcymus, Alciamus,
Adrysus, Cleolaus, Lemnos, Agelaus) as regent of Mansia and accompanied an army
of Lydians led by Ashkelon (Ascalon, the son
of Hymenaeus who was Lehabim’s brother) to defeat the Syrians. Here Mizraim
built a walled city and called it Byblos
(modern-day Gebal) (c.f. Rohl, 2008:304) and prince Ashkelon built
the city of that bore his name (Judges 1:18). In 1680BC, however, knowing
Typhon had made use of the time bought by his ally Busiris, Mizraim returned to
Manisa, which Typhon had under siege. There he subjugated his already half-defeated
half-brother and made Balaneus (Alcymus) king of the city. From here, he sailed
through the Dardanelles of Greece but was denied passage (past modern ) by Lycurgus who
was Typhon’s son. At first, all approaches of the Egyptian fleet were repelled,
but eventually they succeeded in breaching the city and Lycurgus was defeated in
single combat – being replaced by a young Egyptian army commander named Maron
Throughout the year 1678BC, Mizraim was victorious over many more petty kings in
he appointed Macedon his son as sole regent. After these victories on the
mainland, he sailed to the Greece Island of Candia ( Crete) where he defeated Milinus and appointed a son from
whom descended the Curetes.
From Crete, Mizraim and Lehabim journeyed to Noah’s Tanais
(modern day Nedvigovka village) and Asov (Asgaard) on the Sea of Asov (Maeotis,
Maeetis) in Russia and there ended their 9 year conquest. Here, they almost
lost their army due to food shortages and the strong defences of the Scythian
Castle Asgaard – which took over 20
years to breach. Eventually, Lehabim’s younger half-brother Targitaus (Tanais,
Tanaus) was appointed king of the city, from which it derived its name. Whist still
besieging the powerful fortress near Tanais, however, Lehabim became enthralled
in a romantic relationship with the Scythian Princess Araxa 
(Aruru, Ninhursag, Ninkharsag, ‘Lady of the Sacred
Mountain’) the daughter of King
Gambrivises (Gampar) of . Seeking
her father’s permission in marriage, he began a long voyage with Mizraim
through Germany Hungary and towards her
German home via the . In 1672BC, they
greeted Gambrivises in Danube
and built villages and cities on the banks of the Rhine,
from which grew the famous House of Austria. The following years saw a long cross-cultural
exchange take place between Germany
Mizraim (a.k.a. Apis) instructing the Germans in agriculture and the art of growing
Gambrivises was honoured to have such famed guests and soon accepted Lehabim as
his son-in-law. Princess Araxa was given to be his wife and together they had a
son called Tuscus. This Tuscus, later king of Italy, had a son called Altheus,
the father of Blascon, the father of Camboblascon, the father of the brothers Herperus
(Isius) and Ophren (Dardanus - who was later to build the settlement of Dardania
(Troy I)). Egypt
In 1575BC, Armatritis became the 9th king of
(numbered from Nimrod c.f. Figure 1).
In the very same year, Betus (Boetus) the son of Tagus Orma (Malot Tages,
Tegarama, Takarma, son of Gomer) became the 6th king of Babylon Spain (this
Tagus was of the Italian dynasty and had
usurped the Spanish dynasty from Brygus in 1605BC). In 1548BC, the inhabitants
of Italy - who after the death of Cranus Razenus had been ruled by Aurunus (son
of Aram), Tagus Orma and Sicanus (son of
Tagus) - sent messengers to Mizraim in Germany, asking for Egyptian help to
overthrow the petty kings (Enachi Tyrants, Enakii Lukii) who were mercilessly oppressing
them. Mizraim agreed to their pleas and invaded Italy
that same year – defeating the tyrants and ruling there for 11 years in the
city of . In
1537BC, when Mizraim was 230 years old, he was challenged by Betus of Spain,
who was outraged with the Egyptian attack on his Italian cousins. Thus, leaving
a nephew named Lestrigo as regent of Italy (over the Ianigenes), Mizraim and
Lehabim travelled through France on their way towards Spain (where in France one
Celtic King Lucus then ruled, who was the son of Bardus II, the son of Longho,
the son of Bardus I, the son of Drÿus, the son of aforementioned Sarron ‘The
With the aid of his Lybian regent Gerion Asex (Aureo, Auro, Aureus, Chryseos, Deabus
– son of Hiarba the son of Hammon) from Virerbe Lower Egypt,
Mizraim defeated King Betus. This joint pincer-attack became known in Spanish
histories as the African invasion, recorded in Greek myth as the war with the
giants. In place of Betus, Mizraim allowed Gerion
7th king to exploit its vast gold reserves through
slavery. Mizraim and Lehabim, however, founded the city of Spain Barcelona
and then travelled to rule resplendently in the city of Argos,
– where his wife Isis had spent her childhood. About this time, Tnephachthus
(Technatis) the petty king ruling over the Saite Nome of Egypt died and his son
(Bakhor, Pehor, Rathos, Rathosis, Rhemphis, Rhampsinitus, Amasis, Asychis, Amenemhet
III, Amos, Thummosis, Bakenranef, Wahkare, Lord of the Two Lands) was
established as Pharaoh. He ruled in greed and heavy taxation for 6 years,
acquiring the delta city of Greece Tanis, before his entire
army (and his personal horse) were destroyed in the Red
Sea and he was captured by Sabacon (Sabacos, Shabaka, Aktisanes) the
From the Exodus to the First Trojan War: 1533 – 1180 BC
In 1533BC, the 4th year of Belochus the 13th king of
(a.k.a. Jacob) were freed by God, under the leadership of Moses (born in 1613BC),
from Egyptian bondage after 400 years of hard oppression under petty satraps of
Ham, Dionysius and Mizraim. After
Pharaoh Bocchoris (whose large mud-straw-brick pyramid now stands near Huwara -
next to the buried Labyrinth and ancient lake Moeris), his blind sister Anysis
ruled Egypt for 2 years. After the 1st month of innundation,
however, Sabacon burnt his captive Bocchoris alive and invaded Lower Egypt from
He ruled here over the Saite Nome until
an oracle spoke of Mizraim’s return from Ethiopia Argos –
at which point he quietly (and wisely) left for . 24 years after the Exodus,
Gerion died and his three giant sons, the Lomnimi, succeeded in 8th
succession as joint commanders of Ethiopia . After some 35 years of rule
in Arges ( Spain Argos) of Peloponnese, i.e. the year
1502BC, Mizraim (Armais) returned to Lower Egypt
with great fame and built stone obelisks in commemoration of his many exploits
however, did not bode well, because his brother Typhon (Set) had also returned
to ‘recover his stolen kingdom’ and was still jealously scheming revenge for
his humiliating past defeat. It seems probable that Typhon secretly conspired
with the Lomnimi and many other begrudging and jealous rulers (including his
infamous sons) to make Mizraim’s planned assassination look like an accident. In
1502, when Mizraim left Argos for Egypt, Baleus (Tmolus, Timolus, Tipheus)
usurped the throne of Mansia (Western Anatolia) from Belochus (Cambletes) the
grandson of Balaneus (Alcymus) and married Omphale the daughter of Ophren (Jardanes,
Iardanus, Dardanus I). During the reign of Tmolus as the 11th High
King (or 14th numbered from Noah), Typhon and his conspirators
struck in Turkey .
In the year 1469 BC they lured Mizraim into an ostensibly ‘accidental’
encounter with a hippopotamus
and he soon died from a wound inflicted by the animal. His
body was then cut into 26 pieces and distributed secretly as a trophy. At this
time, Rollin affirms
that great chaos and anarchy swept across the whole of Egypt for 2
years as the Ethiopians invaded their land. Outraged, heartbroken, and mentally
unstable, Egypt Isis the Queen of Egypt called a
council and commanded all her kin to avenge her husband’s murder. In Greece, Lehabim (Hercules, Tantalus) together
with the great men in his command, appointed Pelops his son as regent, ordered
the building of the ship Argo and immediately made war on Typhon and his
associates in Arabia, defeating them at personal
cost to his army. His anger still unabated, he then ventured on a long journey
of conquest to defeat the conspirators wherever he could find them. In place of
his dead father and unstable mother, he established in 12 trusted and proven chiefs
– who ruled 36 Egyptian Nomes and met in the 12 great halls of the Labyrinth of Huwara. These
12 chiefs each spoke a different language, and each had authority over a
different language group. One
of these chiefs was the Semitic Amenophis (Amenophthis, Memnon, Munon, Mennon) son
of Thithonus, who was the son of Laomedon of Illion (Troy II-VI). In his days,
many lepers were expelled from Egypt Egypt
into the eastern quarries – but they rebelled forming a covenant with the
Israelites in .
Finally, to placate the large hoard of Israelites and lepers, he gave them the
city of Jerusalem Avaris ( Saba - named from Sabacon),
from where they had previously fled many years before. Amenophis
later died trying to aid the Trojans in the first Trojan war and was succeeded
by Acherrhes (Akenchres, Ketna, Ketes, Proteus, Chennus, Mycerinus, Men-ka-ra,
Menkaure, Kephren) Lehabim’s daughter, who ruled as queen for 12 years.
Meanwhile, Lehabim’s first victory after Arabia (approx. 1465BC) was gained in
( Canaan) over Busiris the Younger. Then in
1454BC he besieged Baleus (Tmolus, Timolus, Tipheus) of Mansia in Lydia
(Turkey) and four years later, upon victory, married Omphale the despot’s
former slave wife. With Omphale as Queen-regent of , he crowned their newborn son
– Altades (Athus the Great) as the king of Sardis and made Ophren (Atlas Kittim, Epher,
Japhran, Afran, Iardanus, Dardanus) the Queen’s father, his army captain. Still
intent on avenging the death of his own father, he mounted an expedition to
Crete (where under the alias of Theseus he vanquished King Mylinus – the
‘Minotaur’) before returning once again to the ‘Isle of the Blessed’ in Phutea (north-west
Africa or Lydia )
which he renamed Lybia after his own name.
Here, he erected a column (possibly known today as ‘El Uted’ or ‘The Pointer’
which sits as a tall stone in the megalithic tumulus of Msoura or Mezorah). From
Mezorah in Morocco, which was in those days a verdant island-garden-sanctuary full
of quince fruit, 10 kilometres upriver from the sea-port of Lixus (Maqom Semes,
‘City of the Sun’) (Temple, 2011, pp. 375-434), he passed across the Straits of
Gibraltar and on into Morocco .
Once landed, he single-handedly defeated the Three Gerions (Lomnimi) in combat and
appointed Hispalus (Hispal, Hispalis of Seville) his son as 9th King
(from Tubal), who ruled Spain
for 17 years. During this interim, Lehabim immediately travelled to Samothea
(France/Britain) for 19 years, where he married Galathea the daughter of King
Jupiter Celtes (son of aforementioned Lucus) and had a son called Galates. After
warring with Albion (Maroticus) and Bergion on
the banks of the Rhine in France, and their brother Lestrigo across in Italy
for a further 10 difficult years, Lehabim finally had 20 years of peace in
Italy – during which time he appointed Galates as the King of Samothea
(France/Britain) and Tuscus as the King of Italy.
The line of Lehabim’s Galathean dynasty continued: Harbon, Lugdus (who founded Spain Lyon in the 14th year of Aschalius of Babylon i.e.
1371BC) and Beligius, after which the Samothean kings continued with his
Tuscanian descendant Hespanus (Iasius, Ephas - who was the elder brother of
Meanwhile, Lehabim left Tuscus in Italy
and returned to
in old age (where he was revered as the god Melqart
of the Phoenicians). There, he found his son Hispalus had died and so he began ruling
jointly with his nephew Hespanus (the 10th king of Spain ) for 13
years and then became sole ruler for a further 19 years. His death in Spain  in
1354BC, aged 350 years old, was greeted with great mourning and sadness, since
he is believed to have committed suicide due to his blindness. The Spanish, then
led by Lehabim’s army generals – which included two Italian brothers descended
from Gomer (Cormerus Gallus) i.e. former king Hespanus (Hesperus, Ephas, Ephah,
Apher) and aforementioned Ophren
(Atlas Kittim, Epher, Japhran, Afran, Iardanus), honoured their great leader by
building a temple in Gadir and an enormous circular megalithic tumulus
for him on an island (now Mezorah of Morocco), below the Straits of Gibraltar,
where Lehabim had many years previously set up his pillar to show the extent of
his travels (and which still stands in relative obscurity near the city of
Lixus). This circular island became known to Pliny (the 1st century
A.D. historian) as the gardens of the Hesperides because the daughters of Atlas
were known as Hesperides (the wives of Hesperus?). The site was also known as
the ‘ Spain Pillars of Hercules’ for many years,
before they were conflated with two mountains on the Straits.
After the death of Lehabim, his generals Hespanus and Ophren fell into a family
their great army dispersed because of the confounding internal power struggle.
Many became nomads wandering in Africa, while
others lived under the hulls of their ships.
Some may have even passed across the Atlantic
via the Canary current to found the ancient Olmec civilisation of Meso-America,
which also worshipped the sun god (Lehabim) (Heyerdahl, 1978). The seat of Egypt’s highest throne remained in , where
Pelops retained the royal sceptre or caduceus. Greece
In 1280BC, after the death of his elder brother Hespanus in Italy, Ophren (Dardanus) sailed - via the Island of Samothráki - to Phrygia (Turkey) where he was given permission from King Athus (Xanthos, Scamander) to build a city. He called it Dardania (known in archaeology as
I). The elders (Kings of Troy) followed in succession to the throne: Erichthonius,
Tros (from whom the Trojans took their name), Ilus (who called Dardania Ilion),
Laomedon (who built Troy II-VI and whose tomb is still supposedly intact under
the great gate Scea) and Priam who was killed as an elderly man in the main Trojan War of 874-864BC (Rohl, 2008:429). The
earliest kings of the Anglo-Saxons may be traced back to Shem, who was the
ancestor via Amenophis, Amenoph, Memnon, Munon (one of the 12 chiefs of Lehabim),
who in his old age married Troan (Priam’s daughter), from which marriage came Tror
and his descendents Loridi, Einridi, Vingethor, Vingener, Moda, Magi and Sceaf
(Seskef, Scyf, Seth, Scef) (approx. 1040BC). Later, Sceaf’s distant descendent Woden
(Wodden, UUoden, Voden, UUothen, Othin) (approx. 60BC) was born, from whence
arose the House of Wessex and many other modern dynasties. Troy
By 1180BC, the city of
Troy, based upon the 12 magisterial sectors
renowned in ’s
Labyrinth, was known for great stature and wealth. However all that was to change
with the arrival of Heracles the Grecian. Historians record that Isis, the
Mother of Lehabim, was still alive at the time of the first sacking of Iliion –
dying 40 years after the destruction of the city at 615 years old! (1140-39BC).
Her funeral must then have taken place in the reign of Belochus (Belimus,
Beleoun, Sardanapalus) the 23rd (and last) Monarch of the Hamitic Assyrian
Empire who burnt himself to death and was succeeded by Arbaces the Mede,
at a time synchronous with Elon’s judgeship of the children of Egypt Israel ( ,
2008b). Austin Isis was the last of those renowned
ancients who were ignorantly deified and worshipped as ‘immortals’. Eleven
hundred and thirty-five years later (5BC), though, life and immortality was
brought to light through the Lord Jesus Christ, who in rising from the dead began
the new creation!
The great Reformer Martin Luther was a well read scholar and to dismiss his overall understanding of ancient history as a complete fabrication requires compelling evidence. Such compelling evidence is non-existent to the best knowledge of this author. Despite some major discrepancies in BC dates and some serious conflation of names in Nanni, our confluence of classical, ancient and modern witnesses all attest the same general flow of international events as has just been synthesised. In places, fragments from authentic chroniclers (still extant) support Lynche’s claims – suggesting Giovanni Nanni did not necessarily fabricate or doctor his data. In other places, our more robust chronology of Babylonian monarchs together with the reasonably assumed longevity of Ham’s line allows us to confirm Polemo’s ancient claim that Mizraim (or Apis, Jupiter Ammon) was the ‘High King’ of the Israelite Oppression (and of the Exodus). Therefore, it is safe to say that Dr Martin Luther and his contemporaries, who believed much of Nanni’s Berosus to be genuine history, were probably correct in their judgement. In this paper, Frere, Prestwich, Evans and Darwin have been thoroughly refuted – for they cannot accommodate a global flood in 2610BC. Furthermore, Nanni’s history has been substantially verified by both authentic classical sources and modern archaeology. It almost goes without saying that if this is confirmed by further investigations, our modern interpretations of history will need to be significantly revised.
As a final thought, the ‘Great Dark Age’ we have here been reconstructing (from the Old Testament and many authentic sources) is contradicted by at least two streams of modern scholarship. First, ‘alternative historians’ or ‘cult archaeologists’ are forever plugging dates for chronologies which disregard God’s book of sacred history and the chronology we derive from it. Their estimates for a ‘lost civilisation’ range from 15,000 to 10,000BC. Although valuable in places, their overall theses cannot be correct in the slightest. Secondly, the theses of ‘mainstream’ academic historians are just as dubious – since they have no qualms about glossing over all the ample evidence for a global cataclysm and subsequent global repopulation with a geologically uneventful Holocene epoch in the
Palaeolithic! From this ‘mainstream’ stance, not only is it
impossible to explain why so many ancient cultures contain historical
references to the global cataclysm, Noah, and his subsequent descendants; it is
equally impossible to explain why human populations were so stunted during the
700,000 (!) years that we are supposed to have been the most capable species on
this planet. Where
are the remains of their technology? Why did they remain on the verge of
extinction for so long? Books on human ‘deep history’ are currently attempting
to patch up these gaping holes in the speculative world of the secular ancient
past - and modern Christians are in danger of forgetting what heritage we have
left from the Reformation period histories that have been so heavily neglected
In response to these mild criticisms, many might reply that ‘giants’ with life-spans measured in centuries of years and a strict adherence to ‘ancient Hebrew folk-lore’ do not constitute a credible alternative to the hard archaeological data behind modern scholarship. Christian readers should therefore be left with a great challenge – if we do not academically overcome the incredulous spirit of our age regarding biblical history, how may we be said to be following the injunctions to be transformed by the renewing of our minds and always ready to give an answer for the hope within us? In these our days, surrounded by so much willful ignorance and misinformation, we must recover a robust concept of creation history and make a stand for God’s Holy Word, just as Dr Luther did in his!
Austin, D. (2008a). Is Darius, the King of Ezra 6:14-15, the Same King as the Artaxerxes of Ezra 7:1? Journal of Creation 22(2): 46-52.
Austin, D. (2008b). Three Chronological Periods of the Old Testament. Journal of Creation 22(3): 51-58.
Austin, D. (2011). Synchronisation of the divided kingdoms of
Judah and . Journal of Creation 25(2): 67-73. Israel
Bowden, M. (1998). True Science Agrees with the Bible.
: Sovereign Publications, pp.
Fasold, D. (1988). The
of Noah. Ark : Knightsbridge
Publishing Company. New York
Inc. Book Sales. (2002). The Timechart of Biblical History.
: Chartwell Books Inc. USA
Jones, F.N. (2005). The Chronology of the Old Testament.
: Master Books. USA
Knight, C. and
A. (2011). Before the Pyramids. Butler : Watkins
Lynche, R. (1601). An Historical Treatise of the Travels of Noah into
Available online at: [WWW] http://annomundi.com/history/travels_of_noah.pdf
(Accessed on 14/06/11). Also see a modern English translation by Argyros
Argyrou: [WWW] http://www.argyrou.eclipse.co.uk/myths/bible/Travels.htm.
Mauro, P. (2001). The Wonders of Bible Chronology.
Hess Publications. Virginia
Menzies, G. (2011). The Lost Empire of Atlantis: History’s Greatest Mystery Revealed.
: Swordfish. London
Niessen, R. (1982). A Biblical Approach to Dating the Earth: a Case for the use of Genesis 5 and 11 as an exact chronology. Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 60-66.
Nissen, H. (Trans. Skondin, T.) (2004). Noah’s
Uncovered: An expedition into the ancient past. Ark Copenhagen:
Patten, D. (1981). The Longevity Accounts in Ancient History. Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 19, No 1. pp. 40-52.
Robinson, S. (1999). Genealogy is not Chronology. Origins, No. 26.
The Biblical Creation Society, pp. 15-21.
Siculus, D. (c. 35 B.C.). Bibliotheca historica or Library of History. Available Online at: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Diodorus_Siculus/home.html (Accessed on 21/07/11).
Rudgley, R. (1998). Lost Civilisations of the Stone Age.
Arrow Books, p. 28. London
Setterfield, B. (1999). Ancient Chronology in Scripture. [WWW] http://www.setterfield.org/000docs/scriptchron.htm (Accessed on 17/10/11).
Stringer, C. (2006). Homo Britannicus: The Incredible Story of Human Life in
. Britain : Penguin Books. London
Ussher, J. (1658 trans. 2003). The Annals of the World.
: Master Books. USA
Viccary, M. (2007). Biblical Chronology – Our Times are in His Hands. Journal of Creation 21(1): 62-66.
The best resources on world history from a biblical perspective are:
Ashton, J. and Down, D. (2006). Unwrapping the Pharaohs.
: Master Books. USA
Burgess, S. (2004). The Origin of
Day One Publications. Leominster
Chittick, D. (2006). The Puzzle of Ancient
Creation Compass. USA
Cooper, B. (1995). After the Flood: The Early Post-Flood History of
Traced Back to Noah. :
New Wine Press. Sussex
335). Chronicle (Trans. from
classical Armenian). Available online at: [WWW]
http://rbedrosian.com/euseb.html (Accessed on 20/08/11).
Gascoigne, M. (2002). Forgotten History of the Western People: From the Earliest Origin. Camberley: Anno Mundi Books.
Hoeh, H.L. (1967 and 1969) Compendium of World History. Volumes 1 and 2. Online: [WWW]
(Volume 1: http://www.cgca.net/coglinks/wcglit/hoehcompendium/hhc1toc.htm). (Volume 2: http://www.friendsofsabbath.org/ABC/HL%20Hoeh%20papers/Compendium%20vol2%20(tables%20format).pdf).
Hoerth, A.J. (1998). Archaeology & The Old Testament.
Baker Academic. USA
Jerome (a.k.a. Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus) (c. 380). Chronicle. Available oneline at: [WWW] http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/index.htm#JeromeChronicle (Accessed on 18/08/11).
Oard, M. (2004). Frozen in time: The Woolly Mammoth, the Ice Age and the Bible.
Snelling, A. (2009). Earth’s Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation and the Flood. Volumes 1 and 2.
Institute for Creation Research. USA
Thong, C. and Fu, C. (2009). Finding God in Ancient
Zondervan. Grand Rapids
Useful sources used to a greater or lesser extent in constructing this history were:
Armour, R.A. (1992). Gods and Myths of Ancient
Egypt Cairo: The American
University in Press. Cairo
Bayle, P. (1737). The Dictionary Historical and Critical of Mr. Peter Bayle. Volume 4.
: J.J. and P.
Knapton. (Available on Google Book Search). London
Bimson, J. (2003). (When) Did it Happen? New Contexts for Old Testament History.
: Grove Books Ltd. Cambridge
Blum, H. (1998). The Gold of Exodus: The Discovery of the Most Sacred Place on Earth.
London: Hodder and .
Cawley, C. (2011).
France, , Sires d'Albret. Chapter 1, C.
(2) available at [WWW] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MONFERRATO,%20SALUZZO,%20SAVONA.htm
(Accessed on 16/04/12) from the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
Clayton, R. (1753). A Vindication of the Histories of the Old and New Testament. Volume 1.
: W. Bowyer.
(Available via Google Book Search). London
Cory, P. and Hodges, E.R. (1876 ed., republished 2003). Cory’s Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and Other Writers.
Cuncliffe, B. (2008).
Europe Between the Oceans: Themes and Variations: 9000 BC – AD 1000. London: Press. Yale
Danielsson, O. (1992). Annius of Viterbo and the Swedish Historiographical Philosophy of the Sixteen and Seventeenth Centuries.
Press. (German Text Only). Uppsala University
Davidson, P. (2011). Atlas of Empires.
London: New Publishers. Holland
Farrer, J.A. (1907). Literary Forgeries.
Available for free download online. London
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Press. Harvard University
Herodotus, (Translated 1998, 2008). The Histories.
Oxford: Press. Oxford
Heyerdahl, T. (1978). Early Man and the Ocean: the beginning of navigation and seaborn civilizations.
: George Allen
& Unwin Ltd. London
Jackson, P. W. (2006). The Chronologers’ Quest: The Search for the Age of the Earth.
Press. Cambridge University
James, P. (1991). Centuries of Darkness.
James, P. (1995). The Sunken Kingdom: The Atlantis Mystery Solved.
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John, R.T. (1994). Fictive Ancient History and National Consciousness in Early Modern
The Influence of Annius of Viterbo’s Antiquitates. London:
Warburg Institute, . University
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Kitchen, K.A. (2003). On the Reliability of the Old Testament.
William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Cambridge
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Barbour Publishing. Ohio
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Press. University of Illinois
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Press. Princeton University
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Press, Vol. 119, No. 1, Italian Issue Supplement: Studia Humanitatis: Essays in
Honor of Salvatore Camporeale, pp. S201-S223. Johns
Wiener, L. (2012, originally 1920). Contributions toward a History of Arabico-Gothic Culture. Volume III: Tacitus’
Germania and other Forgeries.
Willis, R. (ed.). (1993). World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide.
BCA via Duncan Baird Publishers. London
Figure 1: NOT SHOWN - The Kings of
from Noah to Nebuchadnezzar II or ’42 ages’ Babylon
Figure 2: NOT SHOWN ‘De Ortu Regum Anglie’ King List from the
Oxford Bodleian Library, MS Wood, The Great
Chartulary of ,
written approx. AD 1340 Glastonbury
Figure 3: NOT SHOWN - The
or Twin Peaks – Yigityatagi – with
remnants in foreground (after Nissen, 2004) Ark
Figure 4: NOT SHOWN - The Egyptian Lehabim (Hercules) together with club and the circular Spanish tomb built for him near Lixus in
(found in ). The circular glyph is not a
warrior’s shield but a rendition of Mezorah in Cancho Roano, Spain Morocco,
the . This ancient Spanish glyph
corroborates Giovanni Nanni’s history. island of Atlantis
Figure 5: NOT SHOWN- Hercules Inscription at Ciutat Vella,
: See Endnote 86. The second line
from the top contains evidence that Nanni did not invent his claim. Barcelona, Catalonia
Table 1: Revisions to Synchronisms with
Major Suggested Revisions to Conventional Dates for Old Testament Synchronisms
Fall of Sardanapalus (Belochus) to Arbaces the Mede
Subjugation of Judah/Sennacherib invades
Fall of Nineveh/King Saraco (to General Narbopolassar)
Josiah killed by Pharaoh Necho of
Nebuchadnezzar Reigns in the 4th Year of
Jehoiakim and in
destroys the army of Pharaoh Necho
Nebuchadnezzar (Babylonians) sacks
Table 2: Major Periods - Anno Mundi or ‘The Year of the World’
1) Creation to the Cataclysm
2) Cataclysm to Promise to Abraham in
3) Promise to Abraham to the confirmation of said promise to Jacob
4) Confirmation of covenant to the law (Ten Commandments)
5) Law to the building of Solomon’s
7) Fall of
8) Restoration to Christ’s birth
Table 3: NOT SHOWN - Near Eastern Gods from Marinatos, (2010:192), identified after her cryptographic methods:
Table 4: The Ages of Man Revised – according to Nanni’s fragments of Berosus and the King List of Eusebius and Jerome
Name of High Monarch:
Regnal Year BC
R.Y. Ended BC
Comments, inc. Ages of Man
Golden Age (5 rulers)
2. Ham, Belus
4. Nimrod (Saturn)
Great longevity > 600 years
5. Jupiter Belus
Relative peace – single combat resolution
Belus was a prince of study, inventor of the Chaldean astronomy (Pliny)
Silver Age (18 rulers)
Established the Assyrian Empire by subjugating
7. Semyramis I (Queen)
Osyris and Isis born
Semyramis removed her court from
9. Arius, Argon, Agron in Herodotus (Histories 1.7)
One line of Heraclidae (or Anatolian/Lydian
Royals) begin here for 22 generations
10. Aralius (1st generation)
Large-scale warfare begins
11. Balaneus (2nd gen.) Alcaeus, son of Lehabim - rules
100 year human ‘motherhood’
12. Armatritis, Adramytis (3)
13. Belochus, Cambletes (4)
14. Baleus, Tipheus (5)
Mizraim (Osyris) Assassinated
15. Altades, Athus (6)
Lehabim gains Lydia/Sardis
16. Mamythus (7)
17. Aschalius (8)
18. Sphaerus (9)
19. Mamylus (10)
20. Sparaethus (11)
21. Ascatades (12)
Aka Dercatades/Dercetidis – the Father of Queen Attosa/Semyramis according to Ussher (Vol. 1, 363, pg 54)
22. Amyntes (13)
23. Belochus (Sardanapalus) (14)
Assyrian male line fails after 1343 yrs.
Sardanapalus commits suicide
Troy destroyed under Heracles the descendant of Perseus.
24. Attosa (Semyramis II) (15)
Bronze Age (12)
25. Beletares, Nebuchadnezzar (16)
Nebuchadnezzar I, satrap of Arbaces, marries Attosa and builds Bronze gates around
26. Lamprides (17)
Men were prone to warfare
27. Sosares (18)
28. Lampares (19)
29. Panyas (20)
30. Sosarmus (21)
31. Mithraeus, Myrsus in Herodotus (22)
This line of Heraclidae end with Candaules, son of Myrsus. "[Cephalion] says that 1000 years had elapsed from Semiramis to King Mitraeus” (Eusebius)
32. Teutamus, Teuthras, the Great Hittite Tudhaliya IV in Rohl (2008:432)
Rules the Seha River Land. Aids Troy VI but fails to defend it
33. Teutaeus, Telephus, Telephanes, the Hittite Telepinu(sh) in Rohl (2008:432)
Repels Achilles the King of Akhiyawa in 881 BC. Killed in the last siege of Troy VIIa (LH IIIC)
35. Dercylus, Deioces
Iron Age (8)
Men warlike, greedy and impious
Navigation and mining commonplace
42. Thonos Concolerus
T.C. was General Narbopolassar
43. Nebuchadnezzar II
Endnotes or Commentary on the Chronology:
 The covenant made with Abraham involved God telling him what would happen to his descendants (the children of Israel or Jacob) after his own death (cf. Genesis 15:13-14) in a land (singular) not theirs. It did not pertain to Isaac in
when Abraham was still alive. Isaac was forbidden to enter Egypt (Gen.
26:2). Moreover, God describes a period of 400 years of affliction (not an
approximate number standing for 430 but an exact number cf. Acts 7:6-7) after
which time the Egyptian nation whom
they serve shall be judged and then
they shall ‘come out with great
possession’. Note that if Egypt
and Canaan are meant here (as the LXX
has it), then this phrase ‘shall come out’ would be erroneous – because with
that reading they were still in the land of affliction in Canaan where they fled. To maintain biblical truth, we must hold to a long dwelling in Egypt. How
then, do we explain the period of Galatians 3:17? We have to understand that
the covenant was only given to
Abraham and then afterward confirmed
in 1963 B.C. (as a statute in Christ) to Jacob on the very night before he entered Egypt to visit Joseph (cf.
Genesis 12:4, Gen. 15:13, Gen. 46:2-7, Exodus 12:41, Psalm 105:10-11, Acts
7:6). This explains why Exodus 12:41 notes it was 430 years to the very day that the children of Israel left Egypt. Another line of evidence is
that careful Scriptural study cannot
establish that Judah’s
genealogy supports a 215 year sojourn. It simply cannot be maintained that the
Hur of 1 Chron. 2:19 and 2:50 (who are actually both the same person) was the
same Hur who married Miriam the sister of Moses and Aaron. The alleged linkage
is too weak, since both Ruben and Judah both had sons called Hezron – and since
Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite (Joshua 14:6) can hardly also be the son of Hezron! (1 Chron.
2:18). The chronologies do not give birth/death ages in these particular
sections and so cannot be treated as exact as some would wish. The final line
of evidence comes from the fact that the ancestry of Moses’ family in Exodus
6:16-20 is modestly abridged to tribe, clan and family (Minge, 2007:63). The
‘fourth generation’ return mentioned in Gen. 15:16 denotes a generation from
Abraham’s perspective (i.e. about 100 years). In fact, there were eleven
generations (of about 40 years) from Joseph to Joshua (1 Chron. 7:22-27) and
eleven generations from Jacob to Elkanah (1 Chron. 6:33-38) in the genealogy of
Heman, both consistent with the long sojourn period.
Austin (2008:52) includes
the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 as ‘Period 3a’ of his ‘Table 1’. Biblically, it
can be proven that another 114 years of servitude ‘in metaphorical Egypt’ (‘Period
3b’) are necessary to do justice to Luke’s summary of this period in Acts 13.
If the years of usurpation and servitude are totalled in this period they come
to exactly 114 years. Therefore as Setterfield (1999) points out, the ‘Omission
principle’, found elsewhere in Scripture, is also at work in this verse of 1
 Although I knew of works by Edumnd Thiele and Prof. Kenneth Kitchen I also knew from Larry Pierce that Thiele had significant errors in his chronology where he had altered Scripture to accommodate archaeological discoveries. Kitchen, I had already discovered in James’s critique (1991:222), held to the high dynastic chronology of Egypt, which I knew for sure was spurious given the no-gaps chronologies of the Masoretic text (Genesis 5 and 11). Therefore I chose my sources carefully from those who held Scripture as their highest and best authority in chronological data.
 The 42nd ruler, Thonos Concoleros, is called ‘Sardanapalus’ by Alexander Polyhistor as quoted by Eusebius (The Chaldean Chronicle, 9: From the same Alexander [Polyhistor] on the deeds and valor of Sennecherib and Nebuchadnezzar). He can therefore be equated with Narbopolassar the father of Nebuchadnezzar II (who conquered
Jerusalem in 506BC).
 This figure of precisely 42 previous Monarchs is given strong archaeological support from Nebuchadnezzar II’s own “Borsippa Inscription”, which says of the Tower of Babel: “A former king built it (they reckon forty-two ages ago), but he did not complete its head. Since a remote time people had abandoned it, without order expressing their words. Since that time the earthquake and the thunder has dispersed its sun-dried clay; the bricks of the casing had been split, and the earth of the interior had been scattered in heaps. Merodach, the great lord, excited my mind to repair this building. I did not change the site, nor did I take away the foundation stone. … As it had been in former times, so I founded, I made it; as it had been in ancient days, so I exalted its summit.” Smith’s Bible Dictionary quoted in Inc. Book Sales (2002). I have not even begun to enter the debate surrounding the Assyrian Eponym lists, however scholars are beginning to realise that astronomical data used to ‘lock’ key chronological dates are actually quite unreliable (see Newgrosh, 2007).
 This unbroken list of rulers of the city of
was obtained through a synthesis of king lists: Lynche (1601), who gives – with
a few exceptions - the first 14 rulers; together with Diodorus Siculus,
Eusebius and St. Jerome who provide all those upto Thonos Concolerus
(Sardanapalus) the 42nd ruler. It is noteworthy that in antiquity
there were believed to have been four ‘Ages’ – Golden, Silver, Bronze and Iron.
Eusebius and Jerome, following Berosus, begin their king list from the end of
the ‘Golden Age’ with Nynas or Ninus II (the sixth ruler), son of Belus and
record Belochus as monarch number 18. The reigns that Nanni’s Berosus enumerates
(from the end of the ‘Golden Age’ to the Trojan War) are identical in number –
and again end with Belochus (their 18th and my 23rd) –
who was Sardanapallus (under whom the Assyrian Empire fell and the ‘Bronze Age’
began with Medes). Lynche takes us back into the ‘Golden Age’ five more rulers
- to Noah who established the Monarchy under Nimrod (according to Lynche’s
sources). It is also noteworthy that Jerome placed the 42nd ruler in
830BC which suggests he conflated Belochus (the 23rd ruler from Noah)
with Thonos Concolerus the 42nd. Both these kings seem to have had
the name Sardanapalus, but the former burnt himself to death (according to
Diodorus) whereas the latter died naturally and was succeeded by Nebuchadnezzar
II his son. Out of all these 42 rulers, only a handful are mentioned in
Herodotus’ ‘The Histories’. The
second, Bel (or Ham who is Belus), is mentioned as having both a ‘sanctuary’
(i.e. the Tower of Babel) and a gate in Babylon (Book 1: 181 and Book 3:158
respectively). The 24th, Semiramis II is mentioned as having a
Babylonian gate (Book 3:155). The 35th monarch - Deioces, and the 39th
Pharotes - his descendent – plus the 41st Cyaraxes are all mentioned
as Kings of the Medes, confirming Cephalion’s list of Median kings (found in
 For a translation into modern English see: [WWW] http://www.argyrou.eclipse.co.uk/myths/bible/Travels.htm (Accessed on 17/06/12).
 Giants are mentioned by Moses in Genesis 6:4. Lynche claims that Noah was a giant himself, along with many of his descendants (especially in the line of Ham). These giants are not of the fabulous sort (60 feet tall) but rather consistent with physical limits i.e. 8-11 feet tall (as was Goliath of Gath).
mentions that many Egyptian tombs are far larger than would be necessary for an
average sized body. Sesokhris (Khasekhem) was stated by Manetho to have been 5
cubits and 3 palms high, “…which would be about 8 English feet, if the short
cubit of 17.4 inches were used.” In fact, Manetho is probably referring to the
royal Egyptian cubit!
 These truths are often overlooked in most assessments and reappraisals of ancient history, yet they have a truly revolutionary significance for scholarly research today. Long virility coupled with longevity meant that Mizraim the son of Ham was 1st generation post-flood - yet he was only born long after Abraham – the 10th generation from Shem, and lived (because of his genetic inheritance) until well after the death of Moses! If we discount Lynche’s claim, for instance, that Queen Isis (daughter of Ham and thus 1st generation post-flood) lived from approx. 1755BC until 1140BC, some 615 years, we must also discount the reputable Jewish historian Josephus who wrote: “Now I have for witnesses to what I have said all those that have written Antiquities, both among the Greeks and barbarians, for even Manetho, who wrote the Egyptian history, and Berosus, who collected the Chaldean monuments, and Mochus, and Hestiaeus, and beside these, Hieronymus, the Egyptian, and those who composed the Phoenician history, agree with what I here say: Hesiod also and Hecataeus, Hellanicus, and Acusilaus, and besides Ephorus and Nicolaus relate that the ancients lived a thousand years; but as to these matters, let every one look upon them as he thinks fit.” Patten (1981) comments that: “Josephus and his colleagues had read widely throughout the antiquities of the Mediterranean world, at that time under
His mind-set was based in part on the collage of ancient international sources
and their unanimity. There were no contradictions. The ancient longevity
accounts with which he was acquainted extended far beyond the borders of his
native Rome .
His sources came from no less than three continents. Such sources, when in
unison, to Josephus far outweighed the contemporary rationalizations and
cynics, however reasonable and well-intentioned. His sources came from areas
which today include Africa, Asia and Europe […] one can sum up a total of 14 or
15 ancient sources, coming from three continents and at least 6 different
ancient languages. Of these ancient sources familiar to Josephus other than the
Biblical sources, only a few fragments and a few manuscripts survive. This may
be one reason why modern academia is less impressed with this ancient tradition
than was Josephus.” For more on this fascinating topic of longevity and its
consequences for ancient records see Shuckford, S. (1824:226-233). Palestine
 Briefly, we shall establish the authenticity of Giovanni Nanni beyond reasonable doubt. First, let us consider the language that Nanni’s Berosus was originally written in. Ligota (1987:56) notes that Nanni frequently referred to Aramaic (ancient Hebrew/Arabic) words in Berosus and also suggests that it was this language Berosus wrote in. Ligota’s suggestion logically follows because Nanni obtained the fragments from two visiting Armenians of the Domincan Order of Monks (or Friars) – (Master Mathias and Master Georgius according to Farrer, 1907:76) – the latter of whom gave him the fragments as a gift in
existence of this Master Georgius is no longer questioned, for it is certain
that both the monks visited Genoa in the Summer of 1474 or the Spring of 1475
(Danielsson, O. (1992:10) and John, R.T. (1994:22)). That the Berosus fragments
were originally written in Aramaic (ancient Chaldean) is confirmed by William
Harrison in Parry (2001:11 – footnote 34) who revered the brevity of Nanni’s
Berosus as an example of “the auncient forme of writing used by
Antiquitie…untill the use of history came in place (or at lest was knowen among
the gentiles)”. Moreover, a Hebrew Berosus further elucidates Nanni’s comments
mentioned in Grafton (1991:90), namely that: “Annius could certainly borrow
some texts from his Armenian confreres and ask advice on Hebrew and Aramaic
from his Jewish friend the still unidentified ‘Samuel the Talmudist,’”. As
Wiener (2012:203) counters: “…obviously [this was] Samuel Zarfati, the court
physician of Alexander VI, a most learned Spanish Jew.” Therefore it is safe to
conclude that Nanni studied the Latin translation given him with aid from a
Jewish friend who knew Aramaic Hebrew. It is interesting that Nanni did not
know who had first translated the fragments and found them hard to understand –
making reference to “Berosus or his translator” (Ligota, 1987:55) in his
‘Commentaries” of 1498. This suggests the books were old when Nanni was first
given them (as Genoa Harrison in Parry (p.10)
comments: “thes bokes are at the lest 500 yeres olde…” [Parry adding] “for
Godfrey of Viterbo [AD1120-1196] knew them centuries before Annius”. (Parry
later states that Godfrey only mentions the genuine Berosus – but that remains
to be determined). Indeed, the wider story appears to be precisely this: fragments
of the three authentic books of Aramaic Berosus had survived the fire at the
Library of Alexandria. Around AD378, a Spanish-born Bishop of Alexandria, named
Lucius Valerius, relocated to Samosata (modern Samsat in )
with these various fragments, where he undertook a Latin recension into five
parts. We learn this much from The Chronicle of (Pseudo)-Dexter (this being the
disputed history chronicle of the bishop of Barcelona in Spain, Flavius Lucius
Dexter, the son of Pacianus, who flourished approx AD395 according to his
contemporary St. Jerome – see:
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf203/Page_384.html). Dexter’s work plus other
Spanish ecclesiastical chronicles were claimed to have been rediscovered by the
Jesuit J. Roman de la Higuera (1538-1611) in the library of the Benedictine Abbey
of Fulda in Adiyaman Province, Turkey .
If we take Dexter’s work as authentic and not a fabrication designed by
Higuera, it neatly explains why Nanni had five books of Berosus (rather than
the original three) given to him by Armenian (Turkish) Dominican Monks in Germany . Genoa
Secondly, Bayle recounts that Didimus Rapaligerus Livianus mounted a posthumous defence of Nanni in 1678BC saying that: “It is very well known…that Berosus was given him at Genoa, by Father George of Armenia a Dominican [Friar]; and that he found all the rest [i.e. fragments of Archilochus, Metasthenes, Cato, Fabius Pictor, Myrsilus, C. Sempronius, Philo, Xenophon and Antoninus Pius], except Manetho, at one Mr Williams’s of Mantua” (Bayle et al, 1737:299). Now, some fierce critics (e.g. Fumagalli) have tried to dismiss this ‘Mr Williams’ as a figment. Who exactly was he? The answer, it turns out, is quite simple. Nanni refers to him as “Guilelmus Mantuanus” and dates his collections to the year AD1315 in
Now it so happens that Charles Cawley’s ‘Medieval
Lands’ the encyclopaedia of territories in the medieval western world,
found online at the web address referenced above, elucidates this mysterious
Guilelmus. Cawley contains the following very interesting statement: “Matthew
of Paris recounts that…Guglielmo VII Marchese di Monferrato [AD1240-1292]…was
appointed Vicar-General in northern Mantua Italy
by his father-in-law as candidate for the kingdom
of Italy, and led the movement to oust
Charles Comet d’Anjou from the . He succeeded
in depriving the latter of his possessions in kingdom
of Sicily Lombardy
and captured and castrated his ambassadors [probably between AD 1272 and 1275].
He became head of the Ghibelin League formed by the Marchese di Saluzzo [Thomas
I (AD 1239-1296) – Ed.] and contingents from Castile
in the towns of Pavia, Asti,
Mantua, Verona, Genoa, Milan, and Ivrea.”
Nanni visited Alessandria
with the Most Reverend Cardinal Paul de Campo Fulgoso in the 1480’s, who he
mentions in a letter to his brother Thomas. Clearly, Guglielmo later became
known as Guilelmus of Mantua and his Collectanea
(collection of ancient authors) was where Nanni obtained his fragments of the 9
lost authors. The collection of Guglielmo (which he must have repossessed from Charles
I of Mantua Naples in Norther Italy) would have come
originally from .
Sicily library was
probably opened to honour William’s name, in AD1315, by his close kinsman
Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat. This would neatly explain why Nanni in his
Antiquities of 1498 makes mention of a learned Talmudist, Rabbi Moses, who is
probably the Sicilian Moses of Palermo who lived in the second half of the 13th
century and translated various works of old Arabic into Latin for Charles I of
Naples. Charles d’Anjou, as he was know, was renowned for his love of learning
and at that time had commissioned a number of Jewish scholars to translate
Arabic works into Latin as part of the ‘Latin Renaissance’. Livianus cites a
Lutheran saying of the fragments Nanni obtained in Mantua: “…they are all of them
interpolated, castrated, imperfect, and neither translated with fidelity of
judgement: and yet that they were anciently extracted from those true and
legitimate authors, there are such arguments as can admit of no contradiction.
To instance only in [the 22 fragments of] Cato. Examine it again and again,
condemn it as you will, yet you must see and confess that it discovers the wit
and style of the true Cato, which are not to be imitated or counterfeited by
such sort of persons”. Mantua
Let us then move now to consider the works impact on Protestant Theologians. It is noteworthy that eminent Reformers with a high view of Scriptural inspiration, together with other intellectual scholars just as capable, held Nanni (or Annius) in great esteem. Martin Luther “preferred Annius’s Berosus to Herodotus and his ilk” (Grafton, 1991:87) and found it his richest non-biblical source. Philipp Melanchthon used his history extensively, as did Melanchthon’s student Johann Funck, who considered Nanni’s Berosus “the most approved history of the Babylonians” yet rejected Nanni’s Metasthenes as inconsistent (Grafton, 1991:98). In Protestant Geneva he was also held in high esteem by the well respected Abraham Bucholzer who incorporated Nanni’s work into his Isagoge chronologica of 1577. And others, like Guillaume Postel and members of the intellectual
(such as Pier Francesco Giambullari), who were far less Scriptural yet just as
erudite, also considered Nanni’s works genuine. Postel may have ‘touched it
with a pin’ when he wrote that Nanni’s Berosus had a bad reputation because “he
passed down to posterity an account similar to that in the sacred [books], and
thus is despised and ridiculed by men poorly disposed toward divine things,
because of the very quality for which he ought to be praised and preferred to
all other authors”. He also noted that “Berosus sometimes told stories that
redounded to the discredit of the Chaldeans, and a witness testifying against
his own interest deserves belief” and again “Though Berosus the Chaldean is
preserved in fragments, and is disliked by atheists or enemies of Moses, he is
approved of by innumerable men and authors expert in every language and field
of learning. Hence I grant him the faith deserved of any accurate author” (Grafton,
1991:82,95). Here, Postel is echoing a very significant truth. As John
(1994:24) notes: “In the commentaries to his forged texts Annius referred to
fifty-eight ancient authors whose works he might well have known at first hand.
All of them, bar one -- the Orphic Argonautica -- had appeared in print
by the mid-1490s, and those originally in Greek had been translated. The range
of his reading is impressive. He drew on all the standard encyclopaedists:
Pliny, Solinus, Aulus Gellius, Macrobius and Isidore of Seville. He was familiar
with the historians one would expect to be relevant: Herodotus, Livy, Dionysius
of Halicarnassus, Diodorus Siculus, Appian, Sallust, Josephus, Eusebius,
Trogus as epitomised by Justinus, Valerius Maximus, Quintus Curtius Rufus and
Plutarch. He also used the geographers Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy, the
mythographer Hyginus and the Christian apologist Lactantius. Rather
surprising, however, was his dependence upon poets, who are almost as numerous
as historians. They include Homer, Vergil, Silius Italicus, Juvenal, Ovid,
Martial, Valerius Flaccus, Horace, Tibullus, Propertius and Lucan. In conjunction with these he
used ancient commentaries on poets, most notably Servius on Vergil, but also the
pseudo-Acron and Porphyrion on Horace.” Florentine Academy
As regards Nanni’s supposed fraudulent inscriptions and statuettes, Livianus in Bale also notes, from a source (Giornale VIII, de Letterati, 1678, p.122) that: “…He is accused of forging some tables of marble, whereof he has published an explanation. If therefore the truth deserves examining, this author clears Annius by substantial arguments from his adversaries charge of imposture, proving beyond contradiction, that two of those tables called Libiscillæ, from the place where they were found, had been dug up a long time before Annius was born…. And as to those two called Cibelariæ, and that called Longobarica, they were discovered by others and presented to [Pope] Alexander VI, to say nothing of that called Osiriana, which was brought before the time of Annius.” (Bayle et al, 1737:299). Third, and finally, none of the arguments used by his critics to discredit Annius have proven very persuasive to this author. Critics such as Eduardo Fumagalli, Beatus Rhenanus, Pietro Crinito, Juan Luis Vives, Francois Baudouin and Joannes Goropius Becanus were in many cases influenced by the spirit of secular humanism and provide weak, insubstantial claims against his works. We shall now instance some of these bogus arguments and provide a brief rebuttal of each. 1: Pseudo-Berosus evidences great harmony with the other fragments, which harmony can only be obtained through Nanni’s personal authorship and intervention. A: Ligota (1987:45), however, comments: “…the [supposedly] forged texts are set in a mosaic of references to authentic ones - a theoretical framework does emerge. Indeed, though the ancient texts Annius invented have a story to tell, their function, as the commentaries make clear, is as much to show why the story is true as to tell it, that is, to unfold the story as a demonstration of its veracity”. Then, Ligota notes in a footnote: “Telling this one story, which in the Judeo-Christian scheme is the only (true) story there is, allowing for no external point of view. As long as the scheme obtains, criteria for historical truth cannot be entirely abstracted from the specific history they are derived from because they are also an integral part of its content”. Thus we find that this ‘doctoring’ argument backfires and serves to show the remarkable unity between various authors which would be expected to obtain should they all have recorded what actually happened. 2: It is absurd to think that a Babylonian knew anything in detail about countries so far away, or that the art of navigation was so advanced in Noah’s time that he dared travel all over the world. A: The extraordinary cargo of the ship-wreck of Uluburun has proven that the ancients travelled far further than previously thought. Berosus would have had access to many merchant traders who visited
. Noah did not
travel all over the world. According to Berosus, he ventured only around the Babylon Mediterranean Sea and the countries surrounding it. 3.
Pseudo-Berosus never mentions the Hebrews (the Assyrian’s close neighbours). A:
It is well attested that all the kings of Assyria
from Ninus to Belochus were dissolute individuals who hated war and conflict
and remained permanently in their royal palaces to pursue every pleasure. Thus
it is not surprising that they do not record encounters with the Hebrews.
 According to the detailed source study found in the Ph.D. thesis of learned Professor R.T. John (1994:23): “Since the work [of Annius] has almost always been dismissed as a collection of forgeries, rather than read as a history of primeval Europe, as Annius intended, no-one has attempted to analyse its ancient, medieval and modern sources. It has rather been assumed that he must have invented much of what he wrote, both in the texts and in the commentary. On close examination, it becomes apparent that this is not the case at all. Throughout the work Annius continually supported his spurious authors with the testimony of later genuine ones; he had sufficient historical awareness to point out that the later authors he cited were of course following his own much earlier, and therefore more reliable, historians.” The best external evidences (i.e. independent from the claims of the once well respected classical historians like Eusebius and Tacitus) are a few significant details which collectively persuaded me (J.Powell) of the veracity of Giovanni Nanni’s history: 1. Nebuchadnezzar II’s own statement (excavated in the 1800's, concerning '42 ages' - a fact I came across only after the synthesis of classical king lists back to Noah – who was clearly proven number one. 2. Temple's (2011) description of Mezorah of Morocco - which fits remarkably with Lynche's account of Hercules' circular tomb built by the Spanish. 3. Knight and
's work (based upon Thom) in the
identical units of measurement used by the megalith builders across the globe
and their claimed fascination with the stars. 4. Menzies (2011) work showing
that international trade in ancient history was extensive and complex based
upon the extraordinary cargo of the ship-wreck of Uluburun. 5. The warrior
steles found in Butler Spain which
depict a circular megalithic tomb (which are clearly ancient renditions of the
megalithic tomb of Mezorah in )
– see Figure 4. And finally 6. The work of Nanno Marinatos (2010) who describes
the culture of Crete as part of an international milieu which included
cryptographic symbols of the Ark, the mountains of Ararat, the children of Noah
etc. Many other, smaller details, were also borne out by reference to more
ancient historical sources than Nanni himself. Morocco
 This is 293 years before Lynche’s date of 2317BC To arrive at this date I accept as correct David Austin’s claim for a short Persian period (Austin, 2008a) and his detailed, peer-reviewed and Scripturally validated calculations back until the Exodus in 1533BC (c.f. Austin, 2008b and 2011); however I do not accept his date for the entry of Jacob into Egypt. This occurred 430 years before the Exodus (in 1963BC) as we are told in Galatians 3:17 and as Bowden (1998: 151-153) has persuasively argued contra- Viccary (2007). This date is also consistent with Diodorus Siculus’s claim that the Assyrian Empire lasted more than 1300 years before the Mede’s took power under Arbaces. From the
(2504 B.C.) until the 23rd
Babylonian monarch (Belochus or Sardanapalus – after whom the Line of Ham
failed) is approx. 1350 years. This period is clearly the “time of the kings of
Tower of Babel Assyria” mentioned in Nehemiah 9:32.
Ark as described by Fasold (1988) and as represented by
the sun disc and cosmic egg is consistent with both Scripture (Genesis 6:14-16)
and with the general design features of the ancient Egyptian boats found buried
at Giza. These
Egyptian ‘sacred boats’ were involved in an elaborate ritual held outside the
temples of Isis and Osyris ( Temple, 2011), which
remembered the cataclysm and the Ark
in pagan cultish fashion. Similar ‘sacred boat’ processions were held around
the Mediterranean. The Ark itself probably had an asymmetric centre
of gravity and if Fasold’s fascinating reconstruction is correct it suggests
that the cubits used were of the ancient Egyptian (royal cubit) variety,
measuring 523-529 mm. To the ancient Chinese a vegetable gourd was their most
immediate analogy for the Ark’s
shape – thus the early Rulers of China were called ‘Fu Xi’ or children of the
 Line 37 of the cuneiform tablets of the Epic of Gilamesh calls this hill ‘Mount Mashu, which daily guards the rising and setting of the Sun, above which only the dome of the heavens reaches and whose flank reaches as far as the Netherworld below’ (Nissen, 2004:108). The
village of Uzengili (originally Nazar or Nizir) is close to the (called the ‘Village of the Eight’
in the ‘Valley of the Eight’). village of Arzap
 Chapter 8 of Marinatos (2010) is most important in understanding this mountain. Marinatos (2010:107-113) notes this sacred mountain in
“The Egyptian symbol consists of two peaks that define the horizon between
which the sun disc resides. On Akkadian seals of the third millennium we find a
very similar rendition of the mountain represented as two scaly cones that
signify “land”. In Syria and
Anatolia, the twin peaks also symbolize a
mountain, sometimes a double one. The twin peak mountain defines the edges of
the cosmos. […] It has been previously mentioned that we do not see offerings
(bread, meat, incense, etc.) between the peaks of the object that has been
redefined as a mountain; therefore, its function cannot have been to sanctify
offerings. Instead, the two peaks frame a tree, a double axe, or a god. All of
these are symbols of cosmic significance and not votives that can be
consecreated. […] In summary: the tree rising between the Minoan twin-peak
mountain is not consecrated as an offering but constitutes the tree of life.
This is the solar palm…” Clearly, this was where humanity began afresh.
 This name is found in the most ancient and important creation myth of
called the Ogdoad of Hermopolis (cf: http://www.philae.nu/akhet/Ogdoad.html)
and is given because the sun god was said to be born and to rise there for the
first time. The story is believed to predate the cosmogony of Heliopolis, having been originally
established by Thoth (i.e. Lehabim). Armour (1986:153-154) notes an early
papyrus which records: “Salutations to you, you Five Great Gods, Who come out
of the City of Eight, You who are not yet in heaven, You who are not yet upon
the earth, You who are not yet illuminated by the sun”. “The poem tells how, on
the Island of Flame, the primeval hill similar to the one on which Ra arose, the
four gods came into being at the same time; they were seen as some sort of
force that existed between heaven and earth…Each element brought with him his
female component, giving the total of eight elements. The group included
Nun…and his consort Naunet; Heh…with his consort Heket…; Kek…and his consort
Keket;…and Amun with his consort Amaunet”. Armour amusingly suggests the story
is “a mythical explanation of the ebbing of the Nile flood, which left behind
it mounds of earth teeming with life”; yet it bears a striking resemblance to
the landing of the Ark – especially since from the ‘Cosmic Egg’ the ‘bird of
light’, an aspect of the sun god, burst out! The Egyptian Coffin Texts, spell
223, contain the note: “O Atum give me
this sweet air which is your nostrils for I am this egg which is in the Great
Cackler, I am the guardian of this great prop which separates the earth from
the sky. If I live, it will live; if I grow old, it will grow old; if I breathe
the air, it will breathe the air.
I am he who splits iron, I have gone round about the egg, (even I) the Lord of
 Lynche (1601) records that Noah showed his sons their territories in the 100th year after the flood. Before this, his family must have inhabited
built some of the most ancient monuments in that country. The 25 years is an
approximation only during this period.
 Lynche (1601) mentions an ancient marble called the ‘Issue of Noah’ which he found and inscribed a history onto just after the flood. This marble may have once stood within the megalithic henge of Zorats Karer near Sisian. This observatory-tomb is very similar to others found in Europe and
Morocco, suggesting a cultural
link. One significant difference, however, is that some stones have well
polished holes cut through them only here in Armenia. This is consistent with
Fasold’s claim that such stones were used by Noah as anchor stones on the Ark. After the
Cataclysm, these anchor stones were transported and reused to construct the
world’s very first megalith (Fasold, 1988).
 Giovanni Nanni probably didn’t know that a place called
Urfa existed, yet he mentioned that Noah was
called Arsa and had many place names called after him. This is one argument in
favour of his records being authentic.
 This is speculation on my part, but the claim is reasonable given the great antiquity of Gobekli Tepe and the fact that they travelled eastward to inhabit
Babylonia (Genesis 11:2). Some interpret the word
‘eastward’ as ‘from the east’ i.e. ‘westward’. The same Hebew word is hard to translate,
yet is given in Genesis 2:8 as ‘eastward’. Gobekli Tepe is unusual since the
stone carvings found there are of species now completely foreign to Turkey.
 The reader interested in studying population growth after the flood is referred to Morris (1966). At the
were probably 70 families of some 10-15 individuals – giving roughly 700-1500
people. By the entry of Abraham into Tower
of Babel Canaan
around the 10th generation, there would have been roughly 2,800,000
people in the world at a conservative estimate.
 C.f. Inc Book Sales (2002) where we are given a description of the
Building of this tower probably began 80 years after the flood. Tower of Babel
 Ussher (2003:22) notes that the
years after the birth of Peleg according to Syncellus’ translation of the Book
of Sothis by Manetho. Tower
 Cory and Hodges (2003: 75) note a fragment from Alexander Polyhistor which contains this detail about a strong wind or whirlwind. The same detail is also contained in other more ancient sources. 1st: A damaged Assyrio-Babylonian Tablet now housed in the
reads: “…them the
father. (The thoughts) of his heart were evil…the father of all the gods he
turned from. (The thoughts) of his heart were evil… British
Museum Babylon corruptly to sin went and small and
great mingled on the mound. … Babylon
corruptly to sin went small and great mingled on the mound. The King of the
holy mound…In front and Anu [i.e. Ham – Ed.] lifted up…to the good god of his
father….Then his heart also…which carried a command…at that time also…which
carried a command…At that time also…he lifted it up…Davkina. Their (work) all
day they founded to their stronghold in the night entirely an end he made. In
his anger also the secret council he poured out to scatter (abroad) his face he
set he gave a command to make strange their speech…their progress he
impeded…the altar…In (that day) he blew
and…For future time the mountain…Nu-nam-nir went…Violently they fronted
against him. He saw them and to the earth (descended). When a stop he did not
make of the gods…Against the gods they revolted…violence…Violently they wept
very much they wept. And in the midst…”. 2nd: The Sibyl mentions:
“When all men spoke a common language, certain of them built an exceeding high
tower, thinking thereby to mount to heaven. But the gods sent winds against it
and overturned the tower and gave to every man a peculiar language; whence it
comes that the city was called Babylon.”
Also c.f. the book of Job Chapter 38 vs 1.
 Lynche (1601) recounts Tanais as Noah’s point of departure on his first 10 year voyage to establish boundaries. It is reasonable to suggest that he planted a vineyard close to the habitation based upon ancient wine vessels found at this location and the tradition that Noah was the ‘giver of wine’.
 Lynche (1601) notes that Noah undertook at least two voyages around the
Mediterranean, the first of which took 10 years.
 This information comes from Lynche (1601).
 This name comes from the historian Johannes Turmair (contemporary of the Reformer Martin Luther) who published a king list in his Annals of Bavaria. For more information see: [WWW] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_kings_of_the_Angles (Accessed on 26/08/11).
 This detail comes from Shuckford, S. (1824). The Sacred and Profane History of the World… Book 3, p. 104.
 For more information about the post-Cataclysm ice-age, please see Oard (2004) and Snelling (2009:763-787).
 Another son of Javan was named Iobaath in the historian Nennius (Cooper, 1995:49), Ithobaal the ‘priest of Astarte’ in the Annals of Tyre (Aubet, 2001:148) and Jobhath in early Irish genealogy (Cooper, 1995:111-112).
 Shuckford, S. (1824). p. 103-115, Kitchen, K. (2003). p. 592-597 and Cooper, B. (1995). p. 170-204.
 According to the Iranian historian al-Tabarī (d. 310 AH/923 AD) in his Ta’rikh 1:326, translated in McCants (2012:109): “the first king to rule the earth [
Persia] was Ōshahanj b. Eber b.
Shelah b. Arphachshad b. Shem b. Noah.” This Ōshahanj is also called Ūshing,
Ūshang, Hōshang – whom we have identified as Ham.
 Isaiah 23:13.
 Ibid endnote 30.
 This Huang-Di is recorded as the first to make sacrifices on
Tai in China – see Thong, C. and Fu, C.
 The full Chinese story of the children of the ‘bottle gourd’, the sole survivors of a great flood, is found in Willis (ed.) (1993:93). It was commonly recounted in the oral traditions of the Miao and
of South China.
 This is Manetho’s record – who places 8 ‘demi-gods’ and ’15 heros’ (660 years) before the birth of king Mizraim.
 For this geneological information see Hoeh, H.L. (1967 and 1969) Compendium of World History. Volumes 1 and 2.
 Lynche (1601) makes Dionysius the son of Almanthea (another wife of Hammon). However, here we follow a fragment of Sanchoniathon (extracted from Eusebius), which can be found in Cory and Hodges (2003:13). Sanchoniathon calls Dionysus by the name of Kronus, but the same person which Lynche calls Dionysus is clearly meant (given the context).
 That Jupiter Belus was a son of Ham (Kronus) is found in a fragment of Sanchoniathon (extracted from Eusebius) and in a fragment of Eupolemus, both of whom are contained in Cory and Hodges (2003:14 and 82).
 Isaac Newton in his ‘Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended’ cites the historian Pausanias (2nd cen. AD) for this information regarding Phoroneus and the Argives.
 Lynche (1601) here seems to be following Dionysius of Halicarnassus (60 – 7BC), who Sir Isaac Newton quoted in his ‘Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended’ as saying: “Oenotrus having found in the western parts of Italy a large region fit for pasturage and tillage, but yet for the most part uninhabited, and where it was inhabited, peopled but thinly; in a certain part of it, purged from the Barbarians, he built towns little and numerous in the mountains; which manner of building was familiar to the ancients…”. Newton also notes he wrote: “…seizing part of it, he built towns in the mountains, little and numerous…but after this colony grew numerous, and began to want room, they expelled the Siculi, compassed many cities with walls, and became possest of all the territory between the two rivers Liris and Tibre…”. “The Sicaneans were reputed the first inhabitants of Sicily, they built little Villages or Towns upon hills, and every Town had its own King; and by this means they spread over the country, before they formed themselves into larger governments with a common King: Philistus”.
 Lynche (1601) notes this interesting point, also suggesting that the Italians knew Noah under the alias of Janus. His date for the Flood (2317BC), however, places the founding of this city later in history. Here we must caution that Nanni (Lynche’s main source) was a Librarian of the
collections and therefore he may possibly have increased the antiquity of this
city to please the Roman Catholics.
 Fragment of Sanchoniathon in Cory and Hodges (2003:13). In this part of the fragment, Ouranos is Noah and Kronus is Ham. However names in Sanchoniathon are inconsistent and generic and must be specified by the context of events.
 Lynche (1601) and other historians are admittedly confused about this person. Perhaps there were two people known as Poisedon or
– the first was the son of Ham and the second was the son of Mizraim. Either way,
their descendents were feared as tyrannical giants.
 This date for Abraham’s birth differs from many reputable scholars including Ussher and Jones, yet it is carefully based upon Scripture since according to Bowden’s revised timeline (Bowden, 1998:177-180), where he notes (based on Acts 7:4) that Terah was at least 130 years old when he had Abraham, Abraham was thus born in 2013 Anno Mundi. Given creation most likely took place in 4266BC based on the best scholarship; this means Abraham’s birth date was 2253BC according to these assumptions.
 Plutarch in his ‘De Iside et Osiride’, vol 2., p.354, notes that Amoun was called ‘The hidden God’. It is believed by some that he was hidden in a cave on
Crete since Ham had many of his children
executed or imprisoned.
 Manetho records these kings as the 15th Dynasty of Egypt.
 Nimrod must have been born before 2478BC because he was made Saturn of the Babylonian monarchy by Noah during that year (according to Lynche this was 132 years after the Cataclysm – which he makes to be 2185BC). Here, I have assumed that Nimrod was 609 at his death, meaning he was made Saturn of the Babylonians, by Noah, in the year of his birth (to
Lynche also gives his reign in Babylon
as 56 years, however this is totally incongruous with his total lifespan as
judged by his Scriptural contemporaries in the line of Shem. 609 years is
actually more reasonable!
 This Semiramis I repaired
after a damaging flood, and made war on the Indians as recorded by Diodorus
Siculus. She was later conflated with Semiramis II (1135-1128BC) who married
Beletares (Belesius, Nebuchadnezzar I) – the former keeper of the royal gardens
(according to the king list of Eusebius and Hoeh (1967)).
 This detail is recorded by Lynche (1601).
 This account of the European kings is a synthesis of Lynche (1601) together with Turmair’s king list and a fragment of Sanchoniathon (the latter historian being found in Cory and Hodges (2003:9). In addition,
(2011) writes: “It is obvious that the megalith builders, whose stone rings
were clearly used for astronomical observation purposes, were significantly
advanced in astronomy and geometry. Because they were a maritime civilization,
they must have been unrivalled navigators, and that may well be where their
knowledge of astronomy and geometry received its original impetus.” Knight and Butler (2011) have done
extensive and groundbreaking research into the units of measurement the
megalith builders used in many different countries (the Megalithic Yard, Minoan
foot etc.). It appears that the constellation Orion was mirrored on the ground
in numerous locations across the globe, including Thornborough in England, Giza in Egypt and possibly Sanzhaocun near the ancient
capital of Xi’an in China. The megalith builders were
totally obsessed with the golden ratio in their geometric plans of the Giza plateau ( Temple, 2011)
- and coincidently David Fasold discovered the same golden ratio central to the
design of what many think are the remains of Noah’s Ark (Fasold, 1988).
 Johannes Turmair (contemporary of the Reformer Martin Luther) who published a king list in his Annals of Bavaria. For more information see: [WWW] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_kings_of_the_Angles (Accessed on 26/08/11).
 Lynche (1601) and Hoeh (1967) both note this.
 Compare Lynche (1601) with Johannes Turmair’s Bayerische and Deutsche Chronik as in the endnote above. Both record Gampar as the 7th king of
kings continued after Gampar as follows: Schwab (1667-1621), Wandler
(1621-1580), Deuto (1580-1553), Alman (1553-1489), Baier (1489-1429), Ingram
(1429-1377), Adalger (1377-1328), Larein (1328-1277), Ylsing (1277-1224),
Brenner I (1224-1186), Heccar (1186-1155) (who was the Hector of the Trojan
War), Frank (1155-1114) etc.
 Heyerdahl (1978:323) notes: “The main Roman discovery on the Atlantic coast of
Africa was the island city of Lixus, then known as Maqom
Semes, ‘City of the Sun’ [Ed: i.e. Lehabim]. Its impressive sun-oriented,
megalithic structures were already then so ancient that the Romans considered
Lixus ‘The Eternal City’, older than any settlement inside the Mediterranean;
in fact, the Romans associated the place with the demi-gods who preceded men on
the earth, and ascribed the grave of Hercules to this island
of Lixus which overlooked the Atlantic Ocean. Today Lixus is no longer an island, and
ships cannot get near the former warfs. The impressive ruins are now to be seen
half-buried topping a headland, on a ridge surrounded on all sides by flat
fields through which the undulates towards
the Atlantic shore, now barely visible in the distance. Ships that were
undoubtedly in proportion to the colossal structures ashore once docked at what
was then an island coast; today not even the tiny four- to six-man reed boats,
which have survived among local fishermen, are able to approach the foot of the
landlocked hill. A large Roman mosaic of Lucus
bears witness to former links with the Ocean, while the ruins of Arab mosques
and Roman temples cover earlier Berber and Phoenician structures, refitted in
turn from gigantic blocks hauled from far away by the unknown sun-worshippers
who first chose the site.” Aubert (2001:162) notes that: “…Pliny adds that in
Lixus, in Atlantic Morocco, there was a sanctuary to Heracles (Melqart) that
was older than the one in Gadir and he places the mythical Garden of the
Hesperides in this area (Pliny Nat. Hist. 19:63). Ancient Lixus, situated on
the mouth of the modern Loukkos and in a well-sheltered bay, is close to
present-day El Araich or Larache. According to the classical texts, it was
apparently the most ancient Phoenician colony in the west, although, like Cadiz, it has not so far
yielded any archaeological material earlier than the seventh century BC.”
 Menzies (2011) has presented a powerful thesis which shows that Crete was trading copper and drugs with
from a very early date. America
became conflated with the volcanic , which erupted
in ancient times, producing Plato’s myth of the sunken Atlantis. island
 James (1995, pg. 75) notes that: “Herodotus says that he was told by Egyptian priests that the reign of their first king Menes (i.e. the beginning of their civilization) fell 11, 340 years before the invasion of the Assyrian king Sennacherib…”. Now, it is widely suspected that an extra zero has somehow been added to this figure, meaning he meant 1,134 years. Now Lynche (1601) makes Mizraim (Osyris) about 60 years old when he married his Sister Isis and we also know from Lynche that Isis was born in the first regnal year of Queen Semiramis (i.e. 1755BC). If Mizraim (Menes), being some 10-12 years older than his wife when they married, was thus born in 1767BC (according to the relative chronology provided by Lynche he was born in the reign of Nynas or Ninus II i.e. between 1807-1755BC) and if the reigns of each ruler recorded by Eusebius are correct as we have charted them, this would place Sennacherib’s invasion of Egypt in 633BC - which turns out to be the exact same year (calculated backwards from Nebuchadnezzar’s 524BC ascension) that Sennacherib attempted to destroy Judah under Hezekiah’s kingship, straight after he had captured all the Egyptian and Nubian charioteers! This is only true, however, if we follow
Austin and place the
destruction of Jerusalem
by Nebuchadnezzar in 506BC, some 80 years later than conventionally understood.
Surely this precise correlation is more than a coincidence!
 Multiple lines of evidence suggest Mizraim was Hammurapi. The evidence is summarised: 1. Mizraim was widely known as Apis, or Jupiter (H)ammon, therefore Hammur-api is very close etymologically. 2. The Israelite slaves were known in
Egypt as Hapiru
or Apiru – the slaves of Apis. 3. Apis was well-known for his placement of
pillars on his conquests, hence the stele of his law codes found in Persia as well as Diyarbekir in Turkey. 4. He
arrived in Babylonia/Assyria from India
once he discovered that his father Ham had tried (and failed) to conquer Babylonia for himself. 5. Isaiah 52:4 records ‘the
Assyrian’ as the oppressor of God’s people. 6. He (Jupiter Ammon) was king of Greece at the
time of the Exodus according to Tacitus. 7. The chronology of Egypt’s kings
support this identification. 8. Many laws in Hammurapi’s code are similar to
the laws given Moses. 9. The Israelites worshipped a golden calf/bull (Apis).
 Here it seems we have the first Olympic trainer! Dagon was an idol of the Philistines, the fish god (1 Samuel 5:4), who came out of the Red Sea (from
taught much knowledge (hence Berosus describes Oannes as half man, half fish
according to their pagan superstitions). The Olympic games must have begun
under Mizraim or his son Lehabim about 1750BC. They were later adopted by the
Greeks and the first Olympiad there began roughly 776BC Eusebius wrote: “From [Sardanapallus] until the first Olympiad, 40 years
elapsed.” I believe this is a copying error and the figure should be 400 years,
since Sardanapallus began his rule in 1180BC and 400 years afterward the first
Greek Olympiad occurred in roughly 776BC.
 Working back from Nebuchadnezzar II who began in 523-4BC we have an unbroken line of Assyrian/Anatolian rulers together with their lengths of reign from Eusebius. This list suggests Semiramis I began her rule in 1755BC This date is also consistent with the history of Queen Isis, who is said (by Lynche) to have been born in the first year of Semiramis I and to have died some 40 years after the first destruction of Troy (i.e. 1140BC) at 615 years old.
 For an amazing confirmation of this point, see Marinatos (2010:114-196), where through a study of Minoan art and iconography she establishes a standard shared set of cultural assumptions about the Solar Dynasty of Ham, Mizraim, Isis and Lehabim in the ancient Near East. The Solar Dynasty were sons and daughters of Ham - the sun god. His African/Egyptian dynasty were represented in iconography all over the near eastern world by the ox head, the double-axe, the rosette and split-rosette, the omega-shaped crown, the ankh sacred knot and the incurved altar (which represented the sacred twin-crests of Mt. Yigityatagi where the ark had rested and the sun god had arisen for the first time). Menzies (2011) points out that the Cult of the (Apis) Bull stretched across the ancient world. A Mycean dagger was found inscribed on Stonehenge in
Furthermore, Crete had strong links with Avon, UK Egypt, where the Apis bulls were
considered sacred. All this evidence relates to the period here described.
 The children of Ammon were the same peoples as the Lubims of II Chronicles 12:3, who fought for pharaoh Shishak.
 According to Josephus and Manetho, the Ethiopic war between Mizraim (Kronus, Osyris) and Typhon (Titan) continued for hundreds of years, resulting in the destruction of many descendants of Mizraim, and Moses was one of the last generals to defeat the Ethiopians – shutting them up in a city called Saba or
Meroe or Avaris. Plutarch
recounts that Typhon (Titan) had the aid of a famous queen of Ethiopia by the
name of Aso when he fought against Osyris.
 Rohl (1995:268-273) notes: “Avaris was built on a series of sandy hillocks…surrounded by swamplands to the east and south and the river to the west and north. […] Bietak made the startling discovery that the grave goods associated with the majority of these tombs were of Asiatic origin. The people who had populated the sprawling city of
originated from Palestine and Syria! […] an
anthropological analysis of the skeletal remains by Eike-Meinrad Winkler and
Harald Wilfing shows that more adult women were buried in the settlement than
adult men [and] sixty-five per cent of all the burials were those of children
under the age of eighteen months. Based on modern statistical evidence obtained
from pre-modern societies we would expect the infant mortality rate to be around
twenty to thirty per cent. Could this also be explained by the slaughter of the
Israelite infant males by the Egyptians? […] In the graves of Stratum G the
Austrians found…dismembered sheep, the latter undoubtedly funeral offerings.
Analysis of the sheep remains has shown that they were of the long-haired
variety. The Asiatic folk of early Avaris introduced the Levantine long-haired
sheep into Egypt
clearly indicating their pastoralist origins” (cf. Genesis 46:6).
 A synchronism was noted here – in that both the invasion of Assyria by Ham and Typhon together with the march of Mizraim’s troops through
India and then Assyria and then Turkey occurred
chronologically very close. This would suggest Mizraim was in the same area at
the same time as his farther Ham, and leads us to the story about Ham’s
castration by his son which is normally attributed (wrongly) to Noah.
 This 9 year journey comes from Manetho’s account of the Twelfth Dynasty in
Ammanemes was probably Mizraim and Sesostris was Lehabim or Hercules.
 For more recent evidence of this tribe of women warriors, see: Ascherson, N. (2007).
Black Sea: The Birthplace of
Civilisation and Barbarism. London:
Vintage Books. pp. 111-124.
 The Poem of Solon
 Fragment of Sanchoniathon in Cory and Hodges (2003:11). Atlas is also described as the High King of Atlantis in the Poem of Solon.
 Fragment of Sanchoniathon in Cory and Hodges (2003:12). These flints can still be found in Mezorah of Morocco.
 Herodotus ‘The Histories’ 1:7 mentions king Agron (also called Argon) the Lydian who was the “son of Ninus, the grandson of Belus, the great grandson of Alcaeus (the son of Hercules)”. Clearly this has been corrupted. It should be read that Argon (Arius) was the son of Ninyas, who was himself the grandson of Jupiter Belus yet also the grandfather of Balanaeus (Alcaeus) the son of Hercules (Lehabim) through Argon’s daughter. This is clear from the king list provided by Berosus and Eusebius and the chronology of international events deciphered. As Herodotus notes, exactly 22 generations follow on from this Agron or Argon, ending with Candaules the son of Myrsus (who was clearly king Mithraeus in the king list of Eusebius). Candaules was usurped by Gyges – another descendant of Lehabim (Hercules) – leading to the dynasty of the Mermnads.
 Fragment of Sanchoniathon in Cory and Hodges (2003:15). “Kronus, having laid an ambuscade for his father Ouranos in a certain place in the middle of the earth, and having gotten him into his hands, cuts off his private parts near fountains and rivers. There Ouranos was consecrated [deified], and his spirit was separated, and the blood of his private parts dropped into the fountains and the waters of the rivers; and the place is shewn even to this day.” These days, the large blocks of the Turkish stone monument at Eflatun Pinar, meaning "lilac-coloured spring", are believed to be Hittite in origin, although it was once known as Plato’s Spring (see James, 1995, pg. 199). It is strongly reminiscent of Sanchoniathon’s description of Ham’s execution place. Sanchoniathon also notes: “But when Kronus came to man’s estate, by the advice and assistance of Hermes Trismegistus, who was his secretary, he opposed his father Ouranos, avenging his mother [Gē]”. Isaac Newton also records how in the records of the Cretans: “Saturn was expelled his Kingdom and castrated by his son Jupiter.” Gascoigne (2002, pg. 59) notes “The Greeks also say: “She [Gaia i.e. Rhea the bitter wife] provided Kronus with the adamantine sickle and he castrated him.”
 Lynche (1601) and
Newton’s ‘Chronology of the ’s Amended’. Ancient Kingdom
 Lynche (1601).
 This name Curetes comes from a fragment of Euemerus recorded in Eusebius and contained in Cory and Hodges (2003:173). There, ‘the Curetes’ are described as ‘Priests of Jupiter in the
, and of the
goddess Cybeles – Noah’s wife. island
 The name Tanais stems from king Targitaus (Tanais) of Scythia, apparently the son of Mizraim (Scythian: Zeus) who took a daughter of the
as his concubine. “…they say altogether, from their first king Targitaus until
the invasion of Darius roughly a thousand years passed” (Herodotus, The Histories, Book 4, 5., pp. 236-237).
This date agrees with the time which I have placed Mizraim in Tanais from other
sources. Targitaus, the first Egyptian king of Borysthenes River Scythia,
must then have ended his reign in Tanais roughly 1450BC. This is corroborated
by Justin (Marcus Justinus) in Book 1 of his Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, English Trans.
John Selby Watson (1853), where “Sesostris” and “Tanaus” are princes who
engaged in ancient wars before the time of Ninus.
 The Araxes (today Aras) river which constitutes the border between
Azerbaijani and Iran
was probably named after this Queen Araxa. Incidently, the Norwegian scientist,
Thor Heyrdahl, believed that the Nordic and Anglo-Saxon peoples came from the
area of Caucasus – not far from the Ark
landing site. Heyrdahl followed the Islandic historian Snorre Sturlason
(AD1200) and discovered that Odin’s heavenly castle Asgaard was actually the
Russian town of Asov, where the river Don flows
into the . The Semitic ruler (according to
Walter Monington in the Great Chartulary of Glastonbury, MSS Wood, Bodleian
Library, Oxford), whose name was Woden (Wodden, UUoden, Voden, UUothen, Othin)
was the chief of the Aesir (‘fire worshippers’) who had a castle in Asov before
the Romans caused them to flee for Sweden in 60BC. The As-ov, As-gaard (in
Danish) or As-gorod (in Russian) was the castle of the Aesir. As evidence, Heyrdahl noted that ancient metal belt
holders, rings and armbands from AD 100-200 found near the mouth of the Don
River were almost identical to Viking equivalents found in Sea of Asov Sweden some 800
years later. Many place names in Snorre’s sagas, such as Tanais, matched the
ancient Greek names for places around the .
The Odin-people or Udin people, now found in the Caucasus Mountains of
Azerbaidjan, stayed behind when the others escaped north (Nissen, 2004). For
more fascinating information on the Anglo-Saxons, see Cooper (1995). Sea of Asov
 Hoeh (1969) in his Compendium of World History Volume 2, Chapter II, mentions Araxa as the daughter of king Gampar. She is said to have married Libys the son of Oryz (clearly names of Lehabim and Osyris or Mizraim). Herodotus (The Histories, Book 4, 20-22) mentions that the Kingdom of the ‘Royal Scythians’ (who regard all other Scythians as their slaves) was centred near Lake Maeetis (a former name for the Sea of Asov). This agrees with Lynche, who records that Queen Araxa and Tuscus, the wife and son of Lehabim, had their royal residence in Tanais near the mouth of the River Don.
 By this time, Mizraim and his wife Isis were particularly skilled in agriculture (which they first began in
Lower Egypt according to
Lynche). Also noteworthy is the fact that Tanais, their previous habitation
was a centre of wine production and vine growing - established by Noah himself.
The Apennine Mountains
of peninsular Italy
are apparently named after King Apis.
 Lynche (1601) speaks of Dardanus founding
and Laomedon later fortifying it with two large walls (c.f. James, 1991). Priam
probably added to Laomedon’s great work under his rule (establishing what is
known as Troy VII). It is certainly possible that there was more than one
destruction of Troy.
The first may have been under Hercules the Grecian and the second under
Agamemnon, with other less famous wars a distinct possibility.
 Lynche (1601) and Hoeh (1969) recount this Betus son of Tagus Orma (who is the Togarmah of Genesis 10:3, a son of Gomer.
– the house of Togarmah – traded in Italian horses with the sea-port city of Tyre c.f. Ezekiel 27:14).
 Giovanni Nanni who was the controversial source used by Lynche, is believed to have found evidential remains of Mizraim’s habitation in this city (which was his native city in
The evidence was alleged by some later critics to have been planted in the
ground and Nanni was considered a fraudulent disgrace (see endnote 10). This
author holds no strong position on this sordid dispute, but has presented a
brief defence in the endnote cited above.
 Lynche (1601) but also see Gascoigne (2002:81-84) for a description of these first kings of Samothea. Hoeh (1967) also lists these kings, but he assigns B.C. dates to them which are inconsistent with the wider international chronology of events. Dating many of these kings was extremely difficult, therefore only some have dates associated.
 Lynche (1601) recounts that Gerion reigned until the 28th year of Belochus the 10th king of
(which he numbers from Nimrod the ‘Saturn’ of the Empire rather than from
Noah). John (1994:47) recounts that in Chaldean his name meant ‘stranger’,
while in Greek he was called Chryseos and in Latin Aureus – because of the
great treasure he accumulated.
 Lynche (1601) notes that Tagus Orma gave his name to the river Tagus in
in which large heaps of gold rich sands were found.
 John (1994:63) writes: “Jerónimo Pujades (1568-1635), professor of canon law at the University of Barcelona, provided further support for this theory in his Coronica universal del principal de Cathalunya (1609). There was an inscription, he noted, near the
which read: "BARCINO AB
HERCULE CONDITA". See Figure 5. church of S. Jaime
 Of the 24th Dynasty of Egypt according to Manetho in Cory and Hodges (2003). Accordingly, in his reign a miracle was said to have occurred, in that “a sheep spoke”. This is most probably a derogatory reference to the Israelite Prince Moses standing before Pharaoh.
 Clayton (1753:124) states that Nanni’s Berosus places the Exodus in the reign of Ascatades of Babylon, 794 years after the Flood. According to Lynche and Nanni’s 2317BC Flood date, this would be approx. 1523BC, and accordingly Nanni places Isius and Dardanus and the 16th king of Spain at the time of the Exodus which he seems to have reckoned corresponded to their lifetimes. Yet I believe, based on the death of Hercules in 1354BC and his 5th successor being Isius, that Isius and Dardanus were rather alive approx. 1250BC instead. So the king of
Babylon at the time of
the Exodus (1533BC) was actually Belochus the 13th king of Assyria from Noah, not Ascatades the 21st.
 Polemo (extracted from Africanus, as quoted by Eusebius) in Cory and Hodges (2003:146) notes: ‘that in the reign of Apis, the son of Phoroneus, a part of the Egyptian army deserted from Egypt, and took up their habitation in that part of Syria which is called Palestine, not far from Arabia.’ Mizraim (Apis, Jupiter Ammon) don’t forget, perished in an assassination in 1469BC. Furthermore, Tacitus (The Histories, Book 5) states: “Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of
, led by
Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries… Most
writers, however, agree in stating that once Egypt was over-run by a
pestilential disease, contaminating living bodies, and very foul to behold; Bocchoris
[Boccharis] the king, applying for a Remedy to the Oracle of Jupiter Ammon, was
ordered to purge his Kingdom, and to remove, into another country, that
Generation of Men, so detested by the Deities.” (Tacitus extracted from Clayton
(1753:132)). Jupiter Ammon was clearly the High King - Mizraim (inhabiting Egypt Argos in )
and Boccharis was a petty king or ‘pharaoh’ under his rule at the time. Isis
was also reigning as the wife of Jupiter Ammon, yet we are not sure where –
probably Greece .
Mount Sinai (incidently) can be located in Arabia (Galatians 4:25) and
is today called Jabal al Lawz in Thebes Saudi Arabia
(Blum, 1998). The Golden Calf makes a whole lot more sense when we consider the
Apis bulls were venerated gods of the Egyptians at that time. Stone carvings of
bulls have been found on the natural stone altar below Jabal al Lawz. Furthermore, Cush
was the land of Saudi
Arabia (Numbers 12:1 should read Cushite woman not Ethiopian
because Zipporah the daughter of Jethro the Priest of Midian was from Saudi Arabia or Cush).
 Josephus calls the city of
Avaris by the name of
Saba – probably named after this king Sabacon.
It was later conquered and inhabited again by a league of Israelites together
with Egyptian outcasts.
 Lynche (1601).
 Mizraim was Menes the Thinite of the ‘First Dynasty’ who Manetho records ‘perished by a wound received from a hippopotamus’. Other sources such as Plutarch suggest a crocodile killed him. Since Manetho’s list of Dynasties was actually understood correctly by Eusebius to be various lists of near contemporary rulers (perhaps of each Egyptian Nome in some cases) Mizraim was also recorded as Ammanemes of the ‘Twelfth Dynasty’ who was ‘slain by his eunuchs’; and both Misphragmuthosis and Armesses or Armais of the ‘Eighteenth Dynasty’. This can only be true if the longevity of Mizraim (and thus the authenticity of the Genesis account of history) is taken as given.
 Eudoxus of Cnidus (408BC – 347BC), according to Isaac
Newton’s ‘The Chronology of the Ancient
Kingdoms Amended’, recorded that Bacchus was slain by Typhon.
 See Anon (1841). History of the Egyptians: From Rollin, and other authentic sources, both ancient and modern.
The Religious Tract Society. [WWW] http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3wwGAAAAQAAJ&lpg=PA49&ots=9teA-8Oggv&dq=Bocchoris%2C%20Tnephachthus&pg=PA49#v=onepage&q&f=true
 For more information on the Labyrinth and these 12 halls, see: [WWW] http://www.labyrinthofegypt.com/ (Accessed on 20/01/12). Shuckford (1824:113) recounts that after Mizraim’s death
Egypt was divided into
three by his three sons Ananim king of Tanis,
Naphtuhim king of Naph ( Memphis) and Pathrusim
king of Pathros ( Thebes).
These three may have been among the twelve.
 See Gascoigne (2002:129) where the work of Viktor Rydberg’s Teutonic Mythology is summarised.
 From Josephus against Apion, extracted from Cory and Hodges (2003:134-135). David Rohl (1995:271) corroborates this with archaeology saying: “Bietak notes that the early Asiatics [found in Avaris] were highly ‘Egyptianised’. The later Asiatics, whom I shall subsequently identify with the Hyksos invaders…were very different. According to Bietak the tombs of this group were ‘purely Canaanite…and showed little Egyptian influence’ – in other words newcomers from the
 This detail is found in Josephus who wrote in his Antiquities of the Jews: ‘As for the rest, Ludieim, and Enemim, and Labim, who alone inhabited in Libya, and called the country from himself, Nedim, and Phethrosim, and Chesloim, and Cepthorim, we know nothing of them besides their names; for the Ethiopic war, which we shall describe hereafter, was the cause that those cities were overthrown.’
 For more detail of this historic battle on the
from Holinshed’s Chronicles, see Gascoigne (2002:87).
 Tuscus was called for this coronation ceremony from Lehabim’s (i.e. Odin’s) Tanais or Asov (Asgaard) in modern day
where his mother Queen Araxa (Aruru, Ninhurshag) clearly had her palace of
residence. The line of Italian kings continued: 1. Hesperus (Altheus, Iasius,
Jasius, Jason, Coritus) of Italy,
France and Spain 2. Ophren (Dardanus, Atlas,
Iardanus, Jardanes) who fled to Western Anatolia 3. Blascon, 4. Camboblascon (Coribantus
of Italy not France - whom Morges the son of Ophren relinquished the throne to
as a sign of remorse).
 After Hesperus (Isius) was killed by Ophren (Dardanus) his younger brother, there was a interregnum of some time before Allobrox was made king of
France and Britain. Then followed: 1. Romus
(Romanessos?), 2. Paris, 3. Lemanus, 4. Olbius, 5. Galates II, 6. Nannes, 7.
Remis, 8. Francus, 9. Pictus and 10. Brutus or Brute (who is believed by some
to have arrived in Britain
around 1127 BC to found Trojovinium or New Troy – aka London). From Ophren (Dardanus) the line of
Trojan kings continued: 1. Erichthonius, 2. Trous, 3. Assaracus, 4. Anchises,
5. Aeneas (Dardans - who fled from burning Troy, killed Turnus king of the
Rutulians and married Lavinia daughter of Latinus in Italy), 6. Silvius and 7.
Brutus who invaded Britain.
 Aubet (1993:154) notes: “On the coins from
Melqart appears as a sea god, mounted on a hippocampus” [Ed: a chimera of horse
and fish]. … “Phoenician trade in the west, then, began under the aegis of
Melqart, that is to say of the king of Tyre”.
 Attested by Sallust,
. Jug. 1:8, 3 and Mela 3:46 together
with Egyptian archaeological iconography just recently found in Bell Spain. See
 This Ophren (Iardanus) had a daughter called Omphale who married Lehabim and gave him a son – Athus the Great.
 An ancient, uniquely Egyptian symbol of holy metallurgy, plus a stone depiction of Hercules’ circular
island of Mezorah near Lixus (together with Hercules standing
next to it) has been found by Spanish archaeologists in Cancho Roano, 250 km
from the coast of Spain.
The market of ancient Tarsessos (biblical Tarshish) has also been found in the
harbour area on this coast. See TV production: ‘Finding Atlantis’ (2011) by
National Geographic. Cf. Figure 3. Many other ancient Spanish artefacts prove
beyond doubt that the Spanish buried a famous warrior within a grand circular
tomb on an island. For instance, see: The Solana de Cabanas Stele.
 Aubet (2001:153) notes: “Some authors have hinted at a direct link between the two pillars of the temple in Tyre and the Pillars of Hercules at the other end of the Phoenician world in the city of Gadir (Arrian 2:17, 1-4).”
 Ophren usurped the throne from Hesperus (Hespanus) and gave a daughter called Electra to Camboblascon in marriage – from which union came Isius and Dardanus. This Dardanus, it is believed, envied his elder brother’s kingdom and may have killed him as he bathed outside. This transgression becoming known, he fled to
Turkey and founded Troy.
 This information is confirmed by Idjennaden (The Kings of Mauretania – Kindle Edition) where he notes: “Another tradition, reported by Sallust, who took it from the books of the Numidian king Hiempsal, says that the Medes (from Media, a country north from Persia), the Armenians and the Persians, all belonging to the army that Hercules led to Spain, had moved in Africa after the death of this hero. The first two peoples would have mixed with the Lybians living on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, while the Persians settled farther west, near the
Atlantic Ocean. The peoples resulting from
the merger with the autochthonous people resulted in the ancestors of the
Numidians for the first group, and in the Maures for the second. The tradition
of Hercules in Iberia
leading a large army made of different nations, would be a myth behind which
there is a truth: the installation of many Phoenician colonies in Spain led by a
Melqart, a god worshipped by the Phoenicians and who is the counterpart of the
Greek god Hercules.” If this were true, it would explain why Pharaoh Shishak
had such a large multi-national army when he invaded Jerusalem (1 Kings 14:25).
 “Agamemnon’s sceptre was made by Vulcan, and by Vulcan given to Jupiter, by Jupiter to Mercury, by Mercury to Pelops, by Pelops to Atreus, by Atreus to Thyestes, and by Thyestes to Agamemnon” (Shuckford, (1824:302)).
 See Cooper (1995:84-85) and Gascoigne (2002: 126-130). Woden fled from Asgaard to
when the Romans invaded and hence arose the Anglo-Saxon line.
 Eusebius writes: “Sardanapallus… became the final king of the Assyrians. He surpassed all his predecessors in luxurious living and laziness. After a bit [Diodorus] informs that [Sardanapallus] was so dissolute that not only did he ruin his own life, but he wreaked the entire Assyrian state which had endured from time immemorial. Now it happened that there was a certain Arbaces of Median nationality, a virtuous stout-hearted man who was a general of the Medes who were sent each year to Ninus' city. In the course of his military duties, he became friendly with the commander-in-chief of the Median army, who beseeched him to overthrow the Assyrian government. This is what Diodorus relates in book two of the Historical Library.” Indeed, Arbaces the Mede, destroyed the power of the Assyrians and transferred rule to the Medes. Under his rule, keeper of the
Gardens (Belesius) intermarries and
rules in Babylon as a petty king or satrap -
building the for his Hammitic
wife Attosa. Some of the succeeding Kings of the Medes after Arbaces are named
by Cephalion (in Eusebius) as: Maudaces, Sosarmus (974-952BC), Artycas, Deioces
(811-771BC), Phraortes (658-637BC), Cyaxares (585-543BC) and Ashdahak
(Astyages, Assuerus, Ahasuerus of Dan. 9:1), the latter being contemporary with
both Cyrus I King of Persia and Acraganes (Saracus) of Babylon who was betrayed
by his rebellious usurper general Thonos Concolerus (Narbopalassar). Is there
any biblical confirmation for this revision of the Median Empire? Yes there is.
Isaac Newton wrote that: “After the days of Nimrod, we hear no more of an
Assyrian Empire ‘till the days of Pul”. Given what we have discovered since Hanging
Gardens Newton’s wrote these
words, his statement no longer holds water. There were many kings before Pul.
In fact, Nehemiah 9:32 states regarding the Jews: “Now therefore our God, - let
not all the trouble seem little before thee that hath come upon us, on our
Kings, on our Princes, and on our Priests, and on our Prophets, and on our
fathers, and on all thy people, since the time of the Kings of Assyria, unto
this day”. By the context of this passage, it is clear that the trouble that
Nehemiah is referring to began in the time of their fathers who were given the
promised land i.e. Judges (1140BC) when
the Hamitic Assyrian kings failed in the reign of dissolute king Sardanapallus, not 400 years
later with the rise of the Assyrian king Pul (Tiglath-Pileser III) in the 6th
It is not the rise of the kings of Assyria that this verse refers to at all, it
is the end of their ancient rule from Nimrod (the mighty hunter) until
Sardanapallus – some 1300 years that this verse speaks of, as many reliable
ancient historians clearly also corroborate. C. BC
 Today, traditional Protestant history is considered little more than ancient euhemeristic mythography (reducing pagan mythology to ‘distorted echoes’ of Hebrew truths and belittling pagan gods as mortal men). The modern alternative to Nanni, i.e. cuneiform studies and ‘deep history’, suggest that the oldest pottery in the world (to date) has a radiometric age of 12,700BC (Rudgley, 1999). This dates, in most biblical chronologies, to roughly 6,426 years older than the very inception of cosmic time itself! Human pottery existing ‘before the beginning of the universe’ is nothing short of farcical. It belongs in a Douglas Adams novel. Yet this is where secular humanism has inevitably led historical scholarship, because nothing in history makes sense, except in the light of creation and the Judeo-Christian Tanakh (Old Testament). Cuneiform tablets are enormously useful for answering certain biogeographical questions, yet their value in establishing an absolute chronology is presently rather limited.
 Burgess (2004:125) writes: “Evolutionists have made great efforts to find evidence of such gradual development of technology but with no success…. There are claims of simple weapons like spears and axes being older than 10,000 years but the origin and age of these is very debatable…. If man had evolved, there would have been very intelligent people around for a period of more than 100.000 years because intelligence would not have changed significantly over such a period…. If man had been around for the last 100,000 years, there would have been people with the ability of
living in virtually every generation. To propose that there was a period of at
least 100,000 years where very intelligent people did not make any significant
inventions is absurd in the extreme.”