Thursday, 23 February 2012

Ancient History Revisited

Back to the Sources! – What Church Reformers Believed about
Ancient History and Why it Matters - By J.C.L. Powell


   Have you ever wondered what the Reformer Martin Luther believed regarding the ancient history of our world? Surprisingly, he didn’t follow Herodotus (the so-called ‘Father of Histories’) but chose instead to critically accept considerable portions of a more detailed account which was alleged to come from Berosus the Chaldean Priest. Today, however, this account is widely considered totally spurious and Luther is believed to have been mistaken concerning its overall authenticity. In place of a biblically consistent history, a new inconsistent approach has since arisen that places the origin of humanity in the context of assumed ‘deep time’ (Shryock and Smail, 2011). This radical paradigm shift had its roots in an unorthodox study of the stone hand-axes of Hoxne in Suffolk by John Frere in 1797 ‒ and further interpretations of axes in the River Somme, France, some six decades later. It was then that Joseph Prestwich presented a paper to the Royal Society and John Evans introduced ‘deep time’ to the Society of Antiquaries (Renfrew, 1976:23). During the same year these men were advocating vast ages (i.e. 1859), Darwin published his Origin of Species – and the rest, they say, is history.
   In this article, however, I want to share with you some new evidence suggesting that Dr. Luther’s understanding was correct after all. Frere, Prestwich, Evans and Darwin have regrettably mislead generations of historians and anthropologists ever since. In place of deep time, we present a model to structure the synthesis of sources which have slowly been pieced together. Hopefully, a new generation of bible chronologists and archaeologists will be inspired to investigate this neglected archaic period for themselves - and come to similar conclusions!

Searching for the Beginning: Establishing a Numerical Time-Frame

   First, a sensible beginning for human history and coincidently the beginning of cosmic time itself must be sought. If you were to pick up any ‘authoritative’ work of history or archaeology these days, be it The Times Complete History of the World, Barry Cuncliffe’s Europe Between the Oceans or J. M. Roberts’ History of the World, you would be told that history began long, long ago in the pre-human past. 700,000 years have supposedly elapsed since the beginning of human activity (c.f. Stringer (2006) and Menzies (2011), with ‘hominid’ activity stretching back 9 million years before present. These figures contrast starkly with a beginning date calculated from the inerrant Word of God – the Holy Bible - which in fact is our only sure foundation for historical knowledge. One such Scriptural approximation (valid from 2012 A.D.) is 6,274 years from the beginning of creation. This places Adam and Eve in 4266BC and the Global Cataclysm in 2610BC. How did this author arrive at these dates and how much weight should we attach to them? Well, more than 128 calculations from Scripture have at one time or another been proposed for the creation - and the arguments surrounding them are still ongoing today! The evolutionist H.G. Wells described Archbishop Ussher’s famous date of 4004BC as a ‘fantastically precise misconception’ founded upon ‘rather arbitrary theological assumptions’. In fact, Wells himself was far more arbitrary in his calculations than Ussher! Our approach at derivation probably isn’t the last word on the subject, but it did involve consulting dozens of experts and carefully weighing their arguments against numerous Scriptural references (using ‘direct equivalence’ in Hebrew translation) – so I shall try to limit an answer to just one sentence! The date 4266BC was obtained through a synthesis of authorities; concluding a superiority of the Masoretic text over the Septuagint (Jones, 2005 contra Setterfield, 1999); no gaps in the family lists of Genesis 5 and 11 (Niessen, 1982 contra Robinson, 1999); a long period of 430 years for Israel in Egypt[1] (Bowden, 1998 contra Viccary, 2007); 594 years of sovereign theocracy from the Exodus to Solomon’s 4th year[2] - and a Persian period of just 123 years (Austin, 2008a, 2008b and 2011 contra Jones, 1993 and Ussher, 1658 trans. 2003).
   Having established a clear timeframe solely from the best biblical scholarship[3], the next logical step was to examine other reliable sources and carefully seek out any obvious synchronisms. Considering the wealth of contradictory yet so-called ‘reliable’ histories available at our fingertips, it was hard to know where to start! An old quotation swiftly answered this problem: “The one infallible connecting link between sacred and profane chronology is given in Jeremiah 25:1: ‘The fourth year of Jehoiakim, which was the first year of Nebuchadnezzar.’ If the events of history had been numbered forward from this point to the birth of Christ, or back from Christ to it, we should have a perfectly complete and satisfactory chronology.” (Anstey, 1913 in Mauro, 2001). Now according to Austin’s careful Scriptural synchronisation of the divided kingdoms of Judah and Israel, the forth year of Jehoiakim was 524BC - meaning that this is when Nebuchadnezzar II most probably began his Assyrian reign (Austin, 2011). So assuming a ‘short’ Persian period of 123 years, here was a significant synchronism ‘anchor point’ on which to build a larger, more reliable timeline (c.f. Figure 1).
   Meanwhile, many fragments of Ancient and Classical historians had been accrued and a long list of Assyrian/Babylonian rulers from Noah to Nebuchadnezzar’s Father[4] drawn up – a total of precisely 42 Monarchs[5] (in most instances with their respective regnal years from Eusebius)[6]. These rulers are also listed in Figure 1, where alternative name spellings are separated via a comma. Numbering the events of history back from 524BC, it was now possible to offer a revised chronology of this most obscure period, independent from the (spurious) high dynastic chronology of Egypt. From this revived Assyrian/Babylonian chronology was pieced together a revised history of the ancient world using all the historical and archaeological knowledge gleaned along the way.
   In terms of references, the historical and archaeological reconstruction presented in this article has been drawn from a wide array of sources ancient and modern, but special attention has been paid to Richard Lynche’s ‘An Historical Treatise of the Travels of Noah into Europe’ (Lynche, 1601)[7]. This remarkable little book, which mentions giants like Goliath[8] (9-11 feet tall), uses phrases such as ‘our Lord Jesus Christ’ and faithfully maintains the multi-century life-spans and long virility that people reached in early times[9], has been criticised as deeply misconceived, poorly sourced, legendary and fictitious. To be fair, Lynche’s small volume is indeed heavily reliant upon the highly controversial work of an Italian Friar named Annius a.k.a. Giovanni Nanni[10] (c. 1432-c. 1502), whom many scholars claim was a consummate fraudster. Nanni declared that his source, Berosus, had been the curator of the temple library at Babylon and had access to written records of human history back to the time of Adam. The chain of textual transmission had been Adam, Noah, Nimrod, Berosus, Turkish monks etc. Some scholars may therefore consider much of the following material rather worthless. However, the very latest historical and archaeological research now appears to be proving many of the so-called ‘fabulous’ or ‘outlandish’ claims astonishingly accurate and Nanni is gaining far greater recognition as an authentic source[11]! Knowing that mud does tend to stick to scholars once thrown – and those throwing the most of it (just after Nanni’s death) were actually secular humanists with large axes to grind, it became necessary to personally examine Lynche’s chronology with a fine tooth-comb.
   Does this eyebrow raising chronology really stack up? Can my revised chronology of Babylon shed any new light on Lynches timeline of events? I will leave the reader to make up their own mind about how well these questions have been answered. There is a complex diffusionist story yet to tell, which few will have heard before! In reading this rich and detailed account, bear in mind that the material you are about to consider suggests that if Nanni were a genuine source, Lynche was correct in many historical details, yet failed to accommodate his timeline to a robust numerical foundation (from either Scripture or the Assyrian-Median Empires). Having provided this foundation and added numerous details from modern sources, I personally believe this record is reasonably accurate.
Noah’s last 350 years: 2610 – 2260 BC
   Our account of ancient times begins in 2610BC[12] with just eight people and a whole lot of animals eighteen miles south of Mt. Ararat (Agri Dagi) - in Eastern Turkey (Fasold, 1988 and Nissen, 2004). Here the Ark, looking something like a giant vegetable gourd[13], had come to rest 100 yards from the twin-crests of Yigityatagi (‘the cradle/bed of the heros’ also called Mount Mashu[14], Wall of Heaven, the ‘twin peaks’[15], the Minoan ‘horns’, Mount Nizir, and the ‘Island of Flame’[16]) and its precious cargo had disembarked into Naxuan (Nachidsheuan, Noakh-Tsywn, ‘Place of First Descent’) – see Figure 3. Soon they discovered the Ark’s anchor stones and built a village there called Arzap (now Kazan) – where the Ark first came to rest. This became known as the ‘Place of the Eight’. After 25 years[17], Noah (a.k.a. Ouranos,  Oenotrus, Inachus, Nüwa, Nanna, Ianus, Argus, Nu, Nun, Geȋnos Autochthon, Janus, Olybarma, Oxygus, Arsa, Khasisadra, Xisuthrus, Patecatl, Manes) along with his wife Titea (a.k.a. Tytea, Tydia, Terra, Gaw Bo-lu-en, Nut, Naamah, Naunet, Vesta, Hestia, Aretia, Gaia, Moone, Kuvav, Kufav, Cybele, Kubaba, Kug-Bau) and family travelled north-east from the Ararat (Kurdish) mountains and using the Ark’s anchor stones built the megalithic monument Zorats Karer (Qarahunge) near Sisian in Turkey[18]. Next they travelled south-west and built Urfa (a corruption of Arsa[19]), establishing a sacrificial temple in Gobekli Tepe[20]. In 2573BC, Salah (Shelah) was born to Arphaxad (Arip-hurra, Arraphu, Arpachiya) the son of Shem and according to God’s command, Noah encouraged the chief heads of his family to disperse abroad into various lands. Disobeying his advice, many family members[21] instead travelled south-eastward and together they found a plain in the land of Shinar (Babylonia). There, to make a name for themselves, they began the construction of a city with a 600-foot ziggurat composing seven levels (and a pagan astrological temple at its pinnacle)[22]. Five years after Peleg was born[23], i.e. some 106 years after the Cataclysm, in 2504BC, God came down upon their ‘Tower of the Seven Lights of the Earth’ in a great whirlwind[24] and confused the people’s common language.
   Upon hearing news of this event, Noah, having already moved north with Shem to plant a vineyard near Tanais (now Nedvigovka village) on the north coast of the Sea of Asov (Lake Maeotis, Maeetis) in modern-day Russia[25], built the very first post-flood ships and set sail with his sons on a 10 year voyage[26] to establish boundaries. Sailing around the Sea of Asov and Black Sea, then through the Dardanelles (keeping the coastline always in view), he appointed all the lands of Asia to Shem (his middle child), all the tributaries of Africa to Ham (his younger) - and all the tributaries of Europe to Japheth (the elder). In this careful manner, at various key locations around the Mediterranean Sea, Noah left small language groups with minimal provisions (such as livestock, tools and seed). Returning to his vineyard in Armenia (Russia/Turkey), Noah then began to establish monarchies.
   Between 2478BC and 2465BC, 5 principal monarchies were established at Noah’s command[27]. Babylonia was established under the leadership of the young giant Nimrod (Nembroth, Ninus I, Nebrod, Nebros, Spotted-one, ‘Leopard-tamer’, Saturn) the son of Cush (Khum of Erech, Asbolus – who’s descendants inhabited Saudi Arabia). Germany (Almaign) was inhabited via the Danube River settlements of Lepenski Vir and Vinča in Serbia ‒ and was established under Tuyscon (Tuitsch[28]), Noah’s own son. He left Turkey with his sibling wife (Araxa the Great – Noah’s daughter) plus 31 others and built Koeln-Deutz (Cologne). Meanwhile, the chief sons of Japheth, who first founded the city of Aleppo (Magog) in Syria[29], were each given 3 monarchies in Europe. Kytim (Kittim, Italy) was established under Gomer (Cormerus Gallus) the son of Japheth. Spain was established under Tubal the son of Japheth (together with Tarshish his cousin) - and Gallia-Samothea (France and Britain) under Meshech (Samothes Dis) the son of Japheth. This Meshech arrived in France in 2446BC aged 139 years old, where he was gladly accepted by the indigenous people Noah had first left there - who had begun to build woodland settlements. Britain and Northern Europe at this time were still inhospitably cold from the little ice age, and weren’t inhabited until many centuries later[30]. Javan (Iamanu, Yauna, Iawones, Iawan, Yuban) the son of Japheth, together with his son Elishah (Elisa), founded eastern parts of Greece (the Ionians[31]) and the Cyclades of the Aegean Sea, while Madai (Amada, Medai, Mada) founded the Medes in western Iran[32].
   Shem and his sons in the mid-third millennium BC also founded various settlements in Asia[33]. Elam (Elamtu, Elymais, Elymaei, Haltamti, Huju, Huz) founded Persia, Asshur founded Assyria and built the city of Ur[34], Arphaxad founded Chaldea, Lud founded western Asia Minor, Aram (Aramu) together with his sons Uz, Hul (Huleh, Ul, Hula), Gether (Gather) and Mash (Mashu, Msh’r, Mishal - from whom Damascus received its name) founded parts of Syria and modern-day Israel[35]. Meanwhile in eastern China - Ham (Kronus I, Amynus, Anu, Utu, Shamash, Belus I, Phoroneus i.e. ‘Apostate’, Ouranos II, Pan, Geb, Zoroast, Saturn, Æthiop, Atys, Attis, Hoshang, Esenus, Epigeius) instituted Feng Shan sacrifices at Mount Tai in modern day Shandong province, under his Chinese alias of Huang-Di[36] (one of China’s ‘Three Sovereigns’ or ‘Fu Xi’ meaning ‘bottle gourd’ children[37], the other two being Jah-phu and Shennong, or Lo Shen). Ham’s other sons inhabited various lands: Put (Phut, Puta, Putiya, Pydw, Putu-iaman) founded North Africa near Carthage and Canaan (Kna’an, Kn’nw, Kyn’n.w, Kinnahu, Kinahne) settled in the land later given to Israel (Jacob) – south of the Aramaeans (Aramu).
    In 2440BC, Noah desired to visit his monarchs and so left Russia and Turkey under the leadership of Shem and his Nephew Sabatius Saga (son of Cush) and travelled to Hyrcania (Iran), Mesopotamia, Arabia Felix (Yemen) and Lybia (western Lower Egypt or the Nile Delta). From its first inhabitation in 2427BC, Egypt was ruled jointly by 8 chiefs for 217 years and then 15 chiefs for 443 years[38]. Here in Egypt, Triton the son of Gog, grandson of Sabatius Saga (Sabah) and great grandson of Cush entertained him[39]. Only months afterward, Triton died leaving Hammon (Ammon) as chief of Lower Egypt. Noah gave a daughter named Rhea (Gē, Gaia, Nammu, Neith) in marriage to Hammon and promptly set sail for Spain to visit his grandson Tubal. By Rhea, Hammon had an heir named Dionysius (Kronus II)[40]. Meanwhile, in the 56th year of Jupiter Belus’s (Betylus) life (2367BC) – who later ruled Babylon - his father[41] Ham grew proud ruling in Lower Egypt and decided to invade Greece (where he united the scattered Argives into the city Phoronicum – later called Argos from Argus his grandson[42] – and then Italy, usurping the throne from Ashchenaz the son of Gomer and corrupting the youth with wicked practices. Noah – who had travelled from Spain to Italy to visit Gomer – found out about this transgression and expelled Ham’s tribe to the Island of Sicily[43] in the year 2342BC.
   In 2335BC, Noah built a city in Italy – where over two millennia afterward the Vatican was established[44]. Some 65 years past, without significant recorded incident, by which time Ham had grown powerful in Sicily. Noah, in collaboration with Hammon of Lower Egypt, sent three daughters (Rhea, Astarte and Dione) to the island in an attempt to overthrow him. Yet learning of their intentions, Ham gained power over them and forcefully took them as wives – along with two others (Eimarmene and Hora) who were sent later with troops to make war on him[45]. In 2264BC, Sabatius Saga, the former regent of Armenia (Turkey) who was then living in Italian exile with Noah, died. Noah himself – growing tired and frail – appointed Cranus Razenus as his successor in Italy. Subsequently, the Great Patriarch died in 2260BC, precisely 350 years after the Cataclysm (Genesis 9:28).

From Abraham to Moses: 2253 – 1537 BC

   Meanwhile, the perceived treachery of Hammon (Ham’s own descendent via Cush) filled Ham with guile. In plotting revenge on his father’s main ally, he began construction of a fleet of warships with his infamous son Typhon (Titan, Poseidon, Neptune). (The sons of Poseidon were feared giants who usurped kingdoms wherever they sailed[46]). Across from Sicily, in Mesopotamia at this time in the city of Ur, Terah fathered Abram (Abraham) (born in 2253BC[47]), who came from an idolatrous family but was later chosen by God to bless all nations through the promise of the Messiah who would be born from his lineage. Three years after the birth of Abram (Abraham), and ten years after his father’s death, Ham seized his opportunity to dominate and invaded Lower Egypt via its sea ports. Defeating Hammon, he banished him and his smaller ship-fleet – which fled to the Island of Candia (later called Crete) to hide[48]. Centuries passed and the civilizations in Crete and Egypt began to flourish. Crete and the volcanic Island of Thera together with western Morocco (Ammonia) grew into the famous maritime civilization of Atlantis (Menzies, 2011), who’s chief city was Lixus (Maqom Semes). When Abram (Abraham) reached 100 years old, in 2153BC, he together with Sarah had Isaac – the child of God’s covenant promise. Salah the son of Arphaxad (the son of Shem) died 13 years afterward at the age of 433 years old. Eber his son survived him by 61 years, but lost his throne to Ham by the year 2079 BC, who by that time ruled all Persia as well as Africa.
   When Isaac reached 60 years old, he and his wife Rebecca had Jacob. This Jacob endured a great famine in the land of Canaan before entering Lower Egypt in 1963BC, under a regent of Ham named Timaus – possibly the Pharaoh who knew Joseph. Some 30 years later, his descendents – who were known as ‘Shepherds’ or ‘Hyk-shos’ i.e. ‘Shepherd-Kings’ - began to be oppressed and enslaved by the Egyptian nation (Genesis 15:13-14). The Israelite kings, also later called ‘Hapiru Captives’ or ‘Apiru’, continued after Joseph - Saites, Beon, Pachnan, Staan, Archles and Aphobis[49]. Nearly 100 years after Jacob’s entry, in 1869BC, Nimrod died at the age of 609[50] and was succeeded in Babylon by Jupiter Belus (Betylus) the son of Ham, who ruled a further 62 years. He was succeeded by the war-hungry Nynas (Ninus II) (1807-1755BC) of the Assyrian city of Nineveh, whose wife was Semyramis I[51]. In 1862BC, Meshech (Samothes Dis) of France died aged 723 years old and was succeeded by Magus his son. This Magus was the first ruler of France and Britain to found permanent stone townships and to tend flocks[52]. He gave his name to many ancient towns including Noviomagus, now called Neufchȃteau and Rhotomagus, now called Rouen. In 1811BC, Magus was succeeded by Sarron (Sydyk, Syduk, Sydic, Suduc, Sadykos, Apollo, Chiron) know as ‘The Just’. He married a daughter of Ham and had Asclepius (Eshmun, Imhotep, Tosorthrus – 2nd ruler of the 3rd (contemporary!) Dynasty of Egypt, a skilled healer). Sarron and his family founded universities and places of learning such as megalithic stone henges to carefully observe the stars - and he was Father of the Cabiri (8 sea-fearing brothers who discovered herbs, antidotes and charms and were venerated as healing gods throughout the Mediterranean, Asclepius being their youngest member)[53].
   In Germany, meanwhile, Tuyscon was succeeded by his son Mannus in 1978BC. Mannus had three sons who reined after him[54], Eingeb (Ing) from 1906BC, Ausstaeb (Istaev) from 1870BC and Herman from 1820BC. This former Eingeb had a Semitic general in his army named Brygus (Brigus, Phrygus, Castellum – the son of Mash, the son of Aram the Syrian, the son of Shem in Genesis 10:23) - who in 1651BC became the 4th king of Spain after the reigns of Tubal, Iberus and Eubalda (Inbalda) respectively[55]. The descendants of this King Brygus relocated to Turkey and founded Phrygia, where the city of Dardania (Troy I) or Ilion (Troy II-VI) was later built. In Germany, Mers, the son of Herman, began his reign in the year 1757BC and after him Gambrivises (Gampar) reigned (1711-1667BC) as Germany’s seventh King[56].
   Casting our historical gaze back upon the idyllic civilization of Crete, the descendents of Hammon grew rich through a prosperous trade network of merchant-ship vessels – stretching even as far as western Morocco[57] and South America (via the trade winds)[58]. In 1767BC, Ham, now extremely old, forced Rhea (Gē) in Lower Egypt to give him his youngest son whom he named Mizraim[59] (Osyris, Zeus, Apis, Serapis, Sesostris, Ammanemes, Misor, Misir, Mizru, Musri, Kronus III, Kumarbi, Demaroon, Dionysus II, Danaus, Jupiter Ammon, Jupiter of Acts 14:12, Hammurapi of Babylon?[60], Menes the Thinite, Bacchus, Aithiopais, Ramesses II, Misphragmuthosis, Alisphragmuthosis, Armesses, Armais, Epaphus, Epopeus, Enlil, Enki, Elus, Ea, Ilus, Thamus). The very next year, however, Dionysius (Kronus II) the aforementioned son of Hammon, sailed from Crete and took back Lower Egypt (Memphis, Avaris, Heliopolis etc) from Ham by siege. In the siege, baby Mizraim was seized and Dionysius adopted his infant half-brother as his own child. Being kindly towards Mizraim he appointed his elder brother Dagon (a skilled tutor also called Olympicus, Oannes, Siton) to train him[61]. Humiliated by defeat, Ham together with his infamous son Typhon (Set, Seth, Suphis, Sethos, Sethon, Sethosis, Poseidon, Ophion, Neptune, Chebros, Cheops, Ramesses I, Chembres, Chebres, Zu, Anzu, Imdugud) - from his first wife Noegla - fled to an obscure part of Upper Egypt (Nubia/Ethiopia – possibly Thebes). In 1755BC, the same year in which Semyramis I became Queen of Babylon[62], Ham had a daughter by Rhea whom he named Isis (Ceres, Iuno, Juno, Io, Frugisera, Legisera, Feronia). Soon afterward, he grew discontented in Ethiopia and left Typhon in charge so he could take leave to travel far-east once again and subdue the country of Bactria (Afghanistan). Before this, however, he had appointed a large area of Greece to his wife Astarte (Aphrodite, Venus, Ashteroth of Genesis 14:5, Inanna, Ishtar). The young Isis travelled from Upper Egypt to this Astarte in Greece via the south-west Mediterranean trade current. There, she was made a Priestess of Hera in the city of Argos. In these days the Minoan/Pelasgian cult of the bull was popular in Egypt and throughout the Mediterranean, and Astarte, together with Isis, wore a replica bull’s head with horns as a mark of sovereignty whilst travelling – as is still attested by certain stone reliefs until this day[63].
   In 1705BC, after the death of Queen Semyramis I and in the 8th year of the reign of her son Ninus III (Ninyas, Zames, Zameis, Horus, Ninus the Younger) of Babylon, Mizraim unified Upper and Lower Egypt through a marriage contracted with his sister Isis – who was taken from Argos to be with him. A year later, they had their eldest son in Lower Egypt whom they called Lehabim (Hercules, Heracles, Lubicus, Sesosis II, Horus, Hermes Trismegistus, Athothes, Thoth, Taautus, Tantalus, Thoor, Thoyth, Teshub, Sandes, Dorsanes, Sol Deus, Samdan, Melicarthus, Melkarth, Melqart, Baal of Tyre, Marrhus, Marduk, Merodach, Moeris, Myris, Moloch of the sons of Ammon[64], Mercury, Mercurius of Acts 14:12, Ma-fors, Mavors, Osymandes, Ismandes, Mendes, Lachares, Orus, Athur, Oro, Odin, Ninurta, Ningirsu, Adad, Hadad, Asarluhhi, Ishkur, Pathrusim). This union and child angered Typhon (Titan) of Upper Egypt, who still saw Lower Egypt as his rightful inheritance. Fierce war between Lower (Olympian) and Upper (Titan) Egypt ensued for 19 years, Typhon engaging in successful border invasions (beginning the drawn-out ‘Ethiopic War’[65]) with his younger half-brother Mizraim - whom he despised as illegitimate. Mizraim (Apis), in turn, despised the foreign ‘Shepherds’ or ‘Hapiru/Apiru’ who were still inhabiting his kingdom and posing a potential foe. By this time he had forced them into the city of Avaris[66] (‘Sacred to Orus’, Athur, Athur-ai, Abur, Abaris, Cercasora) and enslaved them in his work-force for over 200 years, but they were growing both in strength and number. In 1685BC, Ham and Typhon together invaded Assyria and Babylonia from Bactria (Afghanistan) and Ethiopia, but their pincer attack was repelled by Ninus III and they were forced to retreat towards Phrygia and Lydia (western Turkey/Anatolia).
   Earlier that same year[67], Mizraim had sought to instruct foreign populations in the great learning of Lower Egypt and to establish his eldest son as heir of all Egypt. Setting off on a 9 year journey[68] with a large multi-national army lead by Lehabim, his eldest son, and Athena (Minerva, Myrina) his daughter (Queen of the Amazons[69]), he taught those in Palestine (under his elder brother Dagon)) advanced skills of agricultural farming, and thereafter set sail for Phutea (Ammonia, north-west Africa or Morocco) to subdue a rebellion and invasion of Egypt by the civilization of Atlantis (whose Moroccan civilisation - Ammonia - under Hammon had previously been usurped by one Antheus (Antaeus, Atlas) the tyrannical son of Ham and subsequently devastated by an Atlantic Tsunami - which had also destroyed Isis’s (Juno’s) Athenian fleet of Greeks who were then at war with them[70]). Here, Mizraim’s army was opposed by Antheus [71], yet he was defeated by Lehabim in single combat, during which battle he picked his opponent up, crushed him to death and threw him into a deep cavern in the earth and buried him with flints[72], after which their army passed quietly into Ethiopia, the Persian Gulf/Red Sea and then on into India (where on two mountains at the mouth of the Ganges they set up pillars). From there, they heard of Ham and Typhon’s attack on Assyria and so passed rapidly northwards into Babylonia. Hearing from Ninus III (Ninyas) about Ham and Typhon’s retreat towards Phrygia (Turkey), Mizraim, Lehabim and a contingent of Babylonian soldiers led by prince Arius (Agron, Argon[73]) the son of Ninyas pressed ahead and overtook Ham laying an ambush for his father near the spring of Eflatun Pinar (in central Turkey). There, having surrounded Ham (Atys, Attis) unawares, Mizraim castrated him - and his blood flowing into the spring, he died of the wound[74]. Moving into the city of Mansia, near Mount Sipylus (Olympus), Mizraim (Zeus) pursued after Typhon. Yet Mizraim’s tyrannical grandson Busiris (Belus, son of one Libya, who was a daughter of Ephaphus (Apophis)) was approaching from Syria (Phonecia, Canaan) in the South. In response to this, Mizraim appointed Lehabim’s son Balaneus (Alcaeus, Alcymus, Alciamus, Adrysus, Cleolaus, Lemnos, Agelaus) as regent of Mansia and accompanied an army of Lydians led by Ashkelon (Ascalon, the son of Hymenaeus who was Lehabim’s brother) to defeat the Syrians. Here Mizraim built a walled city and called it Byblos (modern-day Gebal) and prince Ashkelon built the city of that bore his name (Judges 1:18). In 1680BC, however, knowing Typhon had made use of the time bought by his ally Busiris, Mizraim returned to Manisa, which Typhon had under siege. There he subjugated his already half-defeated half-brother and gave Balaneus (Alcymus) charge of the city. From here, he sailed through the Dardanelles of Greece but was denied passage (past modern Istanbul) by Lycurgus who was Typhon’s son. At first, all approaches of the Egyptian fleet were repelled, but eventually they succeeded in breaching the city and Lycurgus was defeated in single combat – being replaced by a young Egyptian army commander named Maron (Oeagrus)[75].
   Throughout the year 1678BC, Mizraim was victorious over many more petty kings in Greece, where he appointed Macedon his son as sole regent. After these victories on the mainland, he sailed to the Island of Candia[76] (Crete) where he defeated Milinus and appointed a son from whom descended the Curetes[77]. From Crete, Mizraim and Lehabim journeyed to Noah’s Tanais[78] (modern day Nedvigovka village) and Asov (Asgaard) on the Sea of Asov (Maeotis, Maeetis) in Russia and there ended their 9 year conquest. Here, they almost lost their army due to food shortages and the strong defences of the Scythian Castle Asgaard  – which took over 20 years to breach. Eventually, Lehabim’s younger half-brother Targitaus (Tanais, Tanaus) was appointed king of the city, from which it derived its name. Whist still besieging the powerful fortress near Tanais, however, Lehabim became enthralled in a romantic relationship with the Scythian Princess Araxa [79] (Aruru, Ninhursag, Ninkharsag, ‘Lady of the Sacred Mountain’) the daughter of King Gambrivises (Gampar) of Germany[80]. Seeking her father’s permission in marriage, he began a long voyage with Mizraim through Hungary and towards her German home via the Danube River. In 1672BC, they greeted Gambrivises in Germany and built villages and cities on the banks of the Rhine, from which grew the famous House of Austria. The following years saw a long cross-cultural exchange take place between Germany and Egypt, Mizraim (a.k.a. Apis) instructing the Germans in agriculture and the art of growing vines[81]. King Gambrivises was honoured to have such famed guests and soon accepted Lehabim as his son-in-law. Princess Araxa was given to be his wife and together they had a son called Tuscus. This Tuscus, later king of Italy, had a son called Altheus (born 1652), the father of Blascon (born 1612), the father of Camboblascon (born 1582), the father of the brothers Herperus (Isius, Jasius, Jason, Hespanus, Ephas, Ephah, Apher) and Ophren (Epher, Afran, Atlas Kittim, Jardanes, Iardanus, Dardanus – born 1552, who build the settlement of Dardania (Troy I) in the reign of Allobrox of France approximately 1320BC)[82].
   In 1575BC, Armatritis became the 9th king of Babylon (numbered from Nimrod c.f. Figure 1). In the very same year, Betus (Boetus) the son of Tagus Orma (Malot Tages, Tegarama, Takarma, son of Gomer) became the 6th king of Spain[83] (this Tagus was of the Italian dynasty and had usurped the Spanish dynasty from Brygus in 1605BC). In 1548BC, the inhabitants of Italy - who after the death of Cranus Razenus had been ruled by Aurunus (son of Aram), Tagus Orma  and Sicanus (son of Tagus) - sent messengers to Mizraim in Germany, asking for Egyptian help to overthrow the petty kings (Enachi Tyrants, Enakii Lukii) who were mercilessly oppressing them. Mizraim agreed to their pleas and invaded Italy that same year – defeating the tyrants and ruling there for 11 years in the city of Virerbe (or Vetulonia) where Lehabim built a fortified settlement[84]. In 1537BC, when Mizraim was 230 years old, he was challenged by Betus of Spain, who was outraged with the Egyptian attack on his Italian cousins. Thus, leaving a nephew named Lestrigo as regent of Italy (over the Ianigenes), Mizraim and Lehabim travelled through France on their way towards Spain (where in France one Celtic King Lucus then ruled, who was the son of Bardus II, the son of Longho, the son of Bardus I, the son of Drÿus, the son of aforementioned Sarron ‘The Just’[85]). With the aid of his Lybian regent Gerion Asex (Aureo, Auro, Aureus, Chryseos, Deabus – son of Hiarba the son of Hammon) from Lower Egypt, Mizraim defeated King Betus. This joint pincer-attack became known in Spanish histories as the African invasion, recorded in Greek myth as the war with the giants. In place of Betus, Mizraim allowed Gerion[86] as Spain’s 7th king to exploit its vast gold reserves[87] through slavery. Mizraim and Lehabim, however, founded the city of Barcelona[88] and then travelled to rule resplendently in the city of Argos, Greece – where his wife Isis had spent her childhood. About this time, Tnephachthus (Technatis) the petty king ruling over the Saite Nome of Egypt died and his son Bocchoris[89] (Bakhor, Pehor, Rathos, Rathosis, Rhemphis, Rhampsinitus, Amasis, Asychis, Amenemhet III, Amos, Thummosis, Bakenranef, Wahkare, Lord of the Two Lands) was established as Pharaoh. He ruled in greed and heavy taxation for 6 years, acquiring the delta city of Tanis, before his entire army (and his personal horse) were destroyed in the Red Sea and he was captured by Sabacon (Sabacos, Shabaka, Aktisanes) the Ethiopian-Nubian-Kushite.

From the Exodus to the First Trojan War: 1533 – 1180 BC

   In 1533BC, the 4th year of Belochus the 13th king of Babylon[90], the children of Israel (a.k.a. Jacob) were freed by God, under the leadership of Moses (born in 1613BC), from Egyptian bondage after 400 years of hard oppression under petty satraps of Ham, Dionysius and Mizraim[91]. After Pharaoh Bocchoris (whose large mud-straw-brick pyramid now stands near Huwara - next to the buried Labyrinth and ancient lake Moeris), his blind sister Anysis ruled Egypt for 2 years. After the 1st month of innundation, however, Sabacon burnt his captive Bocchoris alive and invaded Lower Egypt from Ethiopia. He ruled here over the Saite Nome[92] until an oracle spoke of Mizraim’s return from Argos – at which point he quietly (and wisely) left for Ethiopia. 24 years after the Exodus, Gerion died and his three giant sons, the Lomnimi, succeeded in 8th succession as joint commanders of Spain. After some 35 years of rule in Arges (Argos) of Peloponnese, i.e. the year 1502BC, Mizraim (Armais) returned to Lower Egypt with great fame and built stone obelisks in commemoration of his many exploits abroad[93]. All, however, did not bode well, because his brother Typhon (Set) had also returned from Turkey to ‘recover his stolen kingdom’ and was still jealously scheming revenge for his humiliating past defeat. It seems probable that Typhon secretly conspired with the Lomnimi and many other begrudging and jealous rulers (including his infamous sons) to make Mizraim’s planned assassination look like an accident. In 1502, when Mizraim left Argos for Egypt, Baleus (Tmolus, Timolus, Tipheus) usurped the throne of Mansia (Western Anatolia) from king Belochus (Cambletes, Camboblascon) the grandson of Balaneus (Alcymus, Altheus) and married Omphale the daughter of prince Ophren (Epher, Afran, Atlas Kittim, Dardanus Jardanes, Iardanus). During the reign of this Baleus (Tmolus) as the 11th High King (or 14th numbered from Noah), Typhon and his conspirators struck in Egypt. In the year 1469 BC they lured Mizraim into an ostensibly ‘accidental’ encounter with a hippopotamus[94] and he soon died from a wound inflicted by the animal[95]. His body was then cut into 26 pieces and distributed secretly as a trophy. At this time, Rollin[96] affirms that great chaos and anarchy swept across the whole of Egypt for 2 years as the Ethiopians invaded their land. Outraged, heartbroken, and mentally unstable, Isis the Queen of Egypt called a council and commanded all her kin to avenge her husband’s murder. In Greece, Lehabim (Hercules, Tantalus) together with the great men in his command, appointed Pelops his son as regent, ordered the building of the ship Argo and immediately made war on Typhon and his associates in Arabia, defeating them at personal cost to his army. His anger still unabated, he then ventured on a long journey of conquest to defeat the conspirators wherever he could find them. In place of his dead father and unstable mother, he established in Egypt 12 trusted and proven chiefs – who ruled 36 Egyptian Nomes and met in the 12 great halls of the Labyrinth[97]. These 12 chiefs each spoke a different language, and each had authority over a different language group[98]. One of these chiefs was eventually the Semitic Amenophis (Amenophthis, Memnon, Munon, Mennon) son of Thithonus, who was the son of Laomedon of Illion (Troy II-VI). In his days, many lepers were expelled from Egypt into the eastern quarries – but they rebelled forming a covenant with the Israelites in Jerusalem. Finally, to placate the large hoard of Israelites and lepers, he gave them the city of Avaris (Saba), from where they had previously fled many years before[99]. Amenophis died trying to aid the Trojans in the first Trojan war of 1180 BC and was succeeded by Acherrhes (Akenchres, Ketna, Ketes, Proteus, Chennus, Mycerinus, Men-ka-ra, Menkaure, Kephren) Lehabim’s daughter, who ruled as queen for 12 years.
    Meanwhile, Lehabim’s first victory after Arabia (approx. 1465BC) was gained in Phoenicia (Canaan) over Busiris the Younger. Then in 1454BC he besieged Baleus (Tmolus, Timolus, Tipheus) of Mansia in Lydia (Turkey) and four years later, upon victory, married Omphale the despot’s former slave wife. With Omphale as Queen-regent of Lydia, he crowned their newborn son – Altades (Athus the Great) as king and added Ophren (Atlas Kittim, Epher, Japhran, Afran, Iardanus, Dardanus) the Queen’s father, to his chief army captains - together with Hespanus, Ophren's elder brother. Still intent on avenging the death of his own father, he mounted an expedition to Crete (where under the alias of Theseus he vanquished King Mylinus – the ‘Minotaur’) before returning once again to the ‘Isle of the Blessed’ in Phutea (north-west Africa or Morocco) which he renamed Lybia after his own name[100]. Here, he erected a column (possibly known today as ‘El Uted’ or ‘The Pointer’ which sits as a tall stone in the megalithic tumulus of Msoura or Mezorah). From Mezorah in Morocco, which was in those days a verdant island-garden-sanctuary full of quince fruit, 10 kilometres upriver from the sea-port of Lixus (Maqom Semes, ‘City of the Sun’) (Temple, 2011, pp. 375-434), he passed across the Straits of Gibraltar and on into Spain. Once landed, he single-handedly defeated the Three Gerions (Lomnimi) in combat (1445BC) and appointed Hispalus (Hispal, Hispalis of Seville) his son as 9th King (from Tubal), who ruled Spain for 17 years. During this interim, Lehabim immediately travelled to Samothea (France/Britain) for 19 years, where he married Galathea the daughter of King Jupiter Celtes (son of aforementioned Lucus) and had a son called Galates (born 1442BC). After warring with Albion (Maroticus) and Bergion[101] on the banks of the Rhine in France, and their brother Lestrigo across in Italy for a further 10 difficult years (until 1432BC), Lehabim finally had 20 years of peace in Italy – during which time he appointed Galates as the King of Samothea (France/Britain) and Tuscus as the King of Italy in a ceremony held in Viterbo (Vetulonia)[102]. Lehabim left Tuscus in Italy in 1386BC and returned to Spain in old age (where he was revered as the god Melqart[103] of the Phoenicians). There, since his son Hispalus had died, he began ruling jointly with his captain Hespanus (Isius, Jasius)(the 10th king of Spain) for 13 years (until 1373BC). He then became sole ruler for a further 19 years. Meanwhile, the Samothean (French) line of Lehabim’s dynastic rule continued after Galates: Harbon, Lugdus (who founded Lyon in the 14th year of Aschalius of Babylon i.e. 1371BC) and Beligius, whose rule was followed by Hespanus (Iasius, Jasius)[104]. Lehabim’s death in Spain[105] in 1354BC, aged 350 years old, was greeted with great mourning and sadness, since he is believed to have committed suicide due to his blindness. The huge army in Spain, then led by Lehabim’s generals king Hespanus (Iasius, Jasius, Hesperus, Ephas, Ephah, Apher) and aforementioned Ophren[106] (Atlas Kittim, Epher, Japhran, Afran, Iardanus, Dardanus) his younger brother, honoured their great leader by building a temple in Gadir and an enormous circular megalithic tumulus[107] for him on an island (now Mezorah of Morocco), below the Straits of Gibraltar, where Lehabim had many years previously set up his pillar to show the extent of his travels (and which still stands in relative obscurity near the city of Lixus). This circular island became known to Pliny (the 1st century A.D. historian) as the gardens of the Hesperides because the daughters of Atlas were known as Hesperides (the wives of Hesperus?). The site was also known as the ‘Pillars of Hercules’ for many years, before they were conflated with two mountains on the Straits[108]. After the death of Lehabim, his generals Hespanus and Ophren soon took up residence in Corythus in Italy where because of his popularity Hespanus became the envy of Ophren. They fell into a family quarrel[109] (possibly Ophren had an affair with Cybele who was Hespanus' wife - because she absconded with him) and their great army dispersed because of the confounding internal power struggle. Many became nomads wandering in Africa, while others lived under the hulls of their ships.[110] Some may have even passed across the Atlantic via the Canary current to found the ancient Olmec civilisation of Meso-America, which also worshipped the sun god (Lehabim) (Heyerdahl, 1978). The seat of Egypt’s highest throne remained in Greece, where Pelops retained the royal sceptre or caduceus[111].
   In 1345BC, after the death of his elder brother Hespanus in Italy and during the reign of Allobrox of France, Ophren (Dardanus) sailed with Cybele - via the Island of Samothráki - to Phrygia (Turkey) where he was given permission from King Athus (Xanthos, Scamander) to build a city. He called it Dardania (known in archaeology as Troy I). The elders (Kings of Troy) followed in succession to the throne: Erichthonius, Tros (from whom the Trojans took their name), Ilus (who called Dardania Ilion), Laomedon (who built Troy II-VI and whose tomb is still supposedly intact under the great gate Scea) and Priam who was killed an old man in the Trojan War of 874-864BC. The earliest kings of the Anglo-Saxons may be traced back to Shem, who was the ancestor via Amenophis, Amenoph, Memnon, Munon (one of the 12 chiefs of Lehabim), who in his old age married Troan (Priam’s daughter), from which marriage came Tror and his descendents Loridi, Einridi, Vingethor, Vingener, Moda, Magi and Sceaf (Seskef, Scyf, Seth, Scef) (approx. 720 BC). Later, Sceaf’s distant descendent Woden (Wodden, UUoden, Voden, UUothen, Othin) (approx. 60BC) was born, from whence arose the House of Wessex and many other modern dynasties[112].
   By 1180BC, the city of Troy, based upon the 12 magisterial sectors renowned in Egypt’s Labyrinth, was known for great stature and wealth. However all that was to change with the arrival of Hercules the Grecian. Historians record that Isis, the Mother of Lehabim, was still alive at the time of the first sacking of Iliion – dying 40 years after the destruction of the city at 615 years old! (1140-39BC). Her funeral must then have taken place in the reign of Belochus (Belimus, Beleoun, Sardanapalus) the 23rd (and last) Monarch of the Hamitic Assyrian Empire who burnt himself to death and was succeeded by Arbaces the Mede[113], at a time synchronous with Elon’s judgeship of the children of Israel (Austin, 2008b). Isis was the last of those renowned ancients who were ignorantly deified and worshipped as ‘immortals’. Eleven hundred and thirty-five years later (5BC), though, life and immortality was brought to light through the Lord Jesus Christ, who in rising from the dead began the new creation!


   The great Reformer Martin Luther was a well read scholar and to dismiss his overall understanding of ancient history as a complete fabrication requires compelling evidence. Such compelling evidence is non-existent to the best knowledge of this author. Despite some major discrepancies in BC dates and some serious conflation of names in Nanni, our confluence of classical, ancient and modern witnesses all attest the same general flow of international events as has just been synthesised. In places, fragments from authentic chroniclers (still extant) support Lynche’s claims – suggesting Giovanni Nanni did not necessarily fabricate or doctor his data. In other places, our more robust chronology of Babylonian monarchs together with the reasonably assumed longevity of Ham’s line allows us to confirm Polemo’s ancient claim that Mizraim (or Apis, Jupiter Ammon) was the ‘High King’ of the Israelite Oppression (and of the Exodus). Therefore, it is safe to say that Dr Martin Luther and his contemporaries, who believed much of Nanni’s Berosus to be genuine history, were probably correct in their judgement. In this paper, Frere, Prestwich, Evans and Darwin have been thoroughly refuted – for they cannot accommodate a global flood in 2610BC. Furthermore, Nanni’s history has been substantially verified by both authentic classical sources and modern archaeology. It almost goes without saying that if this is confirmed by further investigations, our modern interpretations of history will need to be significantly revised[114].
   As a final thought, the ‘Great Dark Age’ we have here been reconstructing (from the Old Testament and many authentic sources) is contradicted by at least two streams of modern scholarship. First, ‘alternative historians’ or ‘cult archaeologists’ are forever plugging dates for chronologies which disregard God’s book of sacred history and the chronology we derive from it. Their estimates for a ‘lost civilisation’ range from 15,000 to 10,000BC. Although valuable in places, their overall theses cannot be correct in the slightest. Secondly, the theses of ‘mainstream’ academic historians are just as dubious – since they have no qualms about glossing over all the ample evidence for a global cataclysm and subsequent global repopulation with a geologically uneventful Holocene epoch in the Upper Palaeolithic! From this ‘mainstream’ stance, not only is it impossible to explain why so many ancient cultures contain historical references to the global cataclysm, Noah, and his subsequent descendants; it is equally impossible to explain why human populations were so stunted during the 700,000 (!) years that we are supposed to have been the most capable species on this planet[115]. Where are the remains of their technology? Why did they remain on the verge of extinction for so long? Books on human ‘deep history’ are currently attempting to patch up these gaping holes in the speculative world of the secular ancient past - and modern Christians are in danger of forgetting what heritage we have left from the Reformation period histories that have been so heavily neglected by archaeologists.
   In response to these mild criticisms, many might reply that ‘giants’ with life-spans measured in centuries of years and a strict adherence to ‘ancient Hebrew folk-lore’ do not constitute a credible alternative to the hard archaeological data behind modern scholarship. Christian readers should therefore be left with a great challenge – if we do not academically overcome the incredulous spirit of our age regarding biblical history, how may we be said to be following the injunctions to be transformed by the renewing of our minds and always ready to give an answer for the hope within us? In these our days, surrounded by so much wilful ignorance and misinformation, we must recover a robust concept of creation history and make a stand for God’s Holy Word, just as Dr Luther did in his!


Austin, D. (2008a). Is Darius, the King of Ezra 6:14-15, the Same King as the Artaxerxes of Ezra 7:1? Journal of Creation 22(2): 46-52.
Austin, D. (2008b). Three Chronological Periods of the Old Testament. Journal of Creation 22(3): 51-58.
Austin, D. (2011). Synchronisation of the divided kingdoms of Judah and Israel. Journal of Creation 25(2): 67-73.
Bowden, M. (1998). True Science Agrees with the Bible. Kent: Sovereign Publications, pp. 151-153.
Fasold, D. (1988). The Ark of Noah. New York: Knightsbridge Publishing Company.
Inc. Book Sales. (2002). The Timechart of Biblical History. USA: Chartwell Books Inc.
Jones, F.N. (2005). The Chronology of the Old Testament. USA: Master Books.
Knight, C. and Butler, A. (2011). Before the Pyramids. London: Watkins Publishing.
Lynche, R. (1601). An Historical Treatise of the Travels of Noah into Europe. Available online at: [WWW] (Accessed on 14/06/11). Also see a modern English translation by Argyros Argyrou: [WWW]
Mauro, P. (2001). The Wonders of Bible Chronology. Virginia: Hess Publications.
Menzies, G. (2011). The Lost Empire of Atlantis: History’s Greatest Mystery Revealed. London: Swordfish.
Niessen, R. (1982). A Biblical Approach to Dating the Earth: a Case for the use of Genesis 5 and 11 as an exact chronology. Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 60-66.
Nissen, H. (Trans. Skondin, T.) (2004). Noah’s Ark Uncovered: An expedition into the ancient past. Copenhagen: Scandinavia.
Patten, D. (1981). The Longevity Accounts in Ancient History. Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 19, No 1. pp. 40-52.
Robinson, S. (1999). Genealogy is not Chronology. Origins, No. 26. Rugby: The Biblical Creation Society, pp. 15-21.
Siculus, D. (c. 35 B.C.). Bibliotheca historica or Library of History. Available Online at: (Accessed on 21/07/11).
Rohl, D. (2008). The Lords of Avaris. London: Arrow Books. 
Rudgley, R. (1998). Lost Civilisations of the Stone Age. London: Arrow Books, p. 28.
Setterfield, B. (1999). Ancient Chronology in Scripture. [WWW] (Accessed on 17/10/11).
Stringer, C. (2006). Homo Britannicus: The Incredible Story of Human Life in Britain. London: Penguin Books.
Temple, R. (2011). Egyptian Dawn: Exposing the Real Truth Behind Ancient Egypt. London: Arrow Books.
Ussher, J. (1658 trans. 2003). The Annals of the World. USA: Master Books.
Viccary, M. (2007). Biblical Chronology – Our Times are in His Hands. Journal of Creation 21(1): 62-66.

Further Reading:

The best resources on world history from a biblical perspective are:

Ashton, J. and Down, D. (2006). Unwrapping the Pharaohs. USA: Master Books.
Burgess, S. (2004). The Origin of Man. Leominster: Day One Publications.
Chittick, D. (2006). The Puzzle of Ancient Man. USA: Creation Compass.
Cooper, B. (1995). After the Flood: The Early Post-Flood History of Europe Traced Back to Noah. Sussex: New Wine Press.
Eusebius of Caesarea. (c. 335). Chronicle (Trans. from classical Armenian). Available online at: [WWW] (Accessed on 20/08/11).
Gascoigne, M. (2002). Forgotten History of the Western People: From the Earliest Origin. Camberley: Anno Mundi Books.
Hoeh, H.L. (1967 and 1969) Compendium of World History. Volumes 1 and 2. Online: [WWW]
(Volume 1: (Volume 2:
Hoerth, A.J. (1998). Archaeology & The Old Testament. USA: Baker Academic.
Jerome (a.k.a. Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus) (c. 380). Chronicle. Available oneline at: [WWW] (Accessed on 18/08/11).
Oard, M. (2004). Frozen in time: The Woolly Mammoth, the Ice Age and the Bible. USA: Master Books.
Snelling, A. (2009). Earth’s Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation and the Flood. Volumes 1 and 2. USA: Institute for Creation Research.
Thong, C. and Fu, C. (2009). Finding God in Ancient China. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Useful sources used to a greater or lesser extent in constructing this history were:

Armour, R.A. (1992). Gods and Myths of Ancient Egypt. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.
Aubet, M.E. (1993). The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bayle, P. (1737). The Dictionary Historical and Critical of Mr. Peter Bayle. Volume 4. London: J.J. and P. Knapton. (Available on Google Book Search).
Bimson, J. (2003). (When) Did it Happen? New Contexts for Old Testament History. Cambridge: Grove Books Ltd.
Blum, H. (1998). The Gold of Exodus: The Discovery of the Most Sacred Place on Earth. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Cawley, C. (2011). Medieval Lands, France, Gascony, Sires d'Albret. Chapter 1, C. (2) available at [WWW],%20SALUZZO,%20SAVONA.htm
(Accessed on 16/04/12) from the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
Clayton, R. (1753). A Vindication of the Histories of the Old and New Testament. Volume 1. London: W. Bowyer. (Available via Google Book Search).
Cory, P. and Hodges, E.R. (1876 ed., republished 2003). Cory’s Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and Other Writers. USA: Kessinger Publishing.
Cuncliffe, B. (2008). Europe Between the Oceans: Themes and Variations: 9000 BC – AD 1000. London: Yale University Press.
Danielsson, O. (1992). Annius of Viterbo and the Swedish Historiographical Philosophy of the Sixteen and Seventeenth Centuries. Germany: Uppsala University Press. (German Text Only).
Davidson, P. (2011). Atlas of Empires. London: New Holland Publishers.
Farrer, J.A. (1907). Literary Forgeries. London. Available for free download online.
Grafton, A. (1991). Defenders of the Text: The Traditions of Scholarship in an Age of Science, 1450-1800. London: Harvard University Press.
Herodotus, (Translated 1998, 2008). The Histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Heyerdahl, T. (1978). Early Man and the Ocean: the beginning of navigation and seaborn civilizations. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
Jackson, P. W. (2006). The Chronologers’ Quest: The Search for the Age of the Earth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
James, P. (1991). Centuries of Darkness. London: Pimlico.
James, P. (1995). The Sunken Kingdom: The Atlantis Mystery Solved. London: Jonathan Cape.
John, R.T. (1994). Fictive Ancient History and National Consciousness in Early Modern Europe: The Influence of Annius of Viterbo’s Antiquitates. London: Warburg Institute, University of London.
Johnson, K. (2010). Ancient Post-Flood History.
Kitchen, K.A. (2003). On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Leston, S. (2011). The Bible in World History. Ohio: Barbour Publishing.
Ligota, C.R. (1987). Annius of Viterbo and Historical Method. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, The Warburg Institute, Vol. 50, pp. 44-56.
Marinatos, N. (2010). Minoan Kingship and the Solar Goddess: A Near Eastern Koine. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield: University of Illinois Press.
McCants, W.F. (2012). Founding Gods, Inventing Nations: Conquest and Culture Myths from Antiquity to Islam. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Minge, B. (2007). ‘Short’ sojourn comes up short? Journal of Creation 21(3): 63.
Morris, H. (1966). World Population and Bible Chronology. Creation Research Society Quarterly. Vol. 3(3). pp. 7-10.
Newgrosh, B. (2007). Chronology at the Crossroads: The Late Bronze Age in Western Asia. Leicester: Matador.
Palmer, T. (2003). Perilous Planet Earth: Catastrophes and Catastrophism Through the Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Parry, G. (2001). Berosus and the Protestants: Reconstructing Protestant Myth. Huntington Library Quarterly, University of California Press, Vol. 64, No. 1/2, pp. 1-21.
Renfrew, C. (1976). Before Civilization. Middlesex: Penguin Books Ltd.
Roberts, J.M. (1993). History of the World. Oxford: Helicon Publishing.
Shryock, A. and Smail, D.L. (2011). Deep History: The Architecture of Past and Present. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Shuckford, S. (1824). The Sacred and Profane History of the World, ConnectedPhiladelphia: William W. Woodward. (Available free from Google Books Reader).
Stephens, W. (1989). Giants in those Days: Folklore, Ancient History, and Nationalism. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Stephens, W. (2004). When Pope Noah Ruled the Etruscans: Annius of Viterbo and His Forged “Antiquities”. MLN, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Vol. 119, No. 1, Italian Issue Supplement: Studia Humanitatis: Essays in Honor of Salvatore Camporeale, pp. S201-S223.  
Wiener, L. (2012, originally 1920). Contributions toward a History of Arabico-Gothic Culture. Volume III: Tacitus’ Germania and other Forgeries. Forgotten Books.
Willis, R. (ed.). (1993). World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide. London: BCA via Duncan Baird Publishers.

Figure 1: The Kings of Babylon from Noah to Nebuchadnezzar II or ’42 ages’

Figure 2: ‘De Ortu Regum Anglie’ King List from the Oxford Bodleian Library, MS Wood, The Great Chartulary of Glastonbury, written approx. AD 1340

Figure 3: The Sacred Mountain or Twin Peaks – Yigityatagi – with Ark remnants in foreground (after Nissen, 2004)

Figure 4: The Egyptian Lehabim (Hercules) together with club and the circular Spanish tomb built for him near Lixus in Morocco (found in Cancho Roano, Spain). The circular glyph is not a warrior’s shield but a rendition of Mezorah in Morocco, the island of Atlantis. This ancient Spanish glyph corroborates Giovanni Nanni’s history.

Figure 5: Hercules Inscription at Ciutat Vella, BarcelonaCatalonia: See Endnote 86. The second line from the top contains evidence that Nanni did not invent his claim.

Table 1: Revisions to Synchronisms with Assyria
Major Suggested Revisions to Conventional Dates for Old Testament Synchronisms




Fall of Sardanapalus (Belochus) to Arbaces the Mede
747 BC
1135 BC
Conquest of Israel by Assyria/King Shalmaneser
721 BC
639 BC
Subjugation of Judah/Sennacherib invades Egypt
713-12 BC
633 BC
Fall of Nineveh/King Saraco (to General Narbopolassar)
626 BC
530 BC
Josiah killed by Pharaoh Necho of Egypt
610 BC
527 BC
Nebuchadnezzar Reigns in the 4th Year of
Jehoiakim and in Battle of Carchemish
destroys the army of Pharaoh Necho

606-605 BC

524-523 BC
Nebuchadnezzar (Babylonians) sacks Jerusalem
586 BC
506 BC

Table 2: Major Periods - Anno Mundi or ‘The Year of the World’
1) Creation to the Cataclysm
AM 1-1656
1,656 years
2) Cataclysm to Promise to Abraham in Ur
AM 1656-2088
432 years
3) Promise to Abraham to the confirmation of said promise to Jacob
AM 2088-2303
215 years
4) Confirmation of covenant to the law (Ten Commandments)
AM 2303-2733
430 years
5) Law to the building of Solomon’s Temple
AM 2733-3327
594 years
6) Temple to the fall of Jerusalem to Nebuchadnezzar II
AM 3327-3759
432 years
7) Fall of Jerusalem to the return from captivity
AM 3759-3809
50 years
8) Restoration to Christ’s birth
AM 3809-4266
457 years

Table 3: Near Eastern Gods from Marinatos, (2010:192), identified after her cryptographic methods

Table 4: Hesiod’s ‘5 Ages of Man’ Revised – according to Nanni’s fragments of Berosus

Name of High Monarch:
Regnal Year BC
R.Y. Ended BC
Comments, inc. Ages of Man
1.       Noah
Golden Age 
2.       Ham, Belus
Tower of Babel
3.       Cush
Good climate
4.       Nimrod (Saturn)
Great longevity > 600 years
5.       Jupiter Belus
Relative peace – single combat resolution
Belus was a prince of study, inventor of the Chaldean astronomy (Pliny)
6.       Nynas
Established the Assyrian Empire by subjugating Babylon and Bactria
7.       Semyramis I (Queen)
Osyris and Isis born (approx)
Semyramis removed her court from Nineveh to Babylon (D. Siculus)
8.       Ninyas
Agriculture taught by Osyris (Mizraim)
9.       Arius, Agron in Herodotus (Histories 1.7)
Silver Age
Death of Ham (Pan). 
One line of Heraclidae (or Lydian
Royals) begin here for 22 generations - see Rohl (2008) and Herodotus
10.    Aralius, Amyrus, Altheus? (1st generation)
Large-scale warfare begins
11.    Balaneus, Balaeus, Xerxes, Alcymus, Alcaeus, Alciamus, Adrysus, Cleolaus, Lemnos, Agelaus, Blascon?  (2nd gen.) son of Lehabim - rules Anatolia
100 year human ‘motherhood’ before adulthood begins
12. Armatritis, Adramytis, Armamithres, Armamitres   (3)

13. Belochus, Cambletes, Camboblascon? (4)
Belochus probably married Electra a descendant of Gomer. 
He was usurped by Baleus.
14. Baleus, Balaeus, Tipheus (5)
Mizraim Assassinated by brother Typhon during this reign
15. Altades, Athus, Sethos, Zaztagus, Altallus, Altadas (6)
Lehabim/Hercules regains Lydia/Sardis and puts his son Altades on the throne
16. Mamythus, Mamynthus (7)

17. Aschalius, Macchaleus, Magchaleus (8)
Death of Lehabim in Spain/Morocco
18. Sphaerus (9)
Bronze Age
19. Mamylus (10)

20. Sparaethus, Spartheus, Spareus, Sparetus (11)

21. Ascatades, Dercetades (12)
Aka Dercatades/Dercetidis – the Father of Queen Attosa/Semyramis according to Ussher (Vol. 1, 363, pg 54)
22. Amyntes (13)

23. Belochus, Belimus, Beleoun, Sardanapalus (14)
Assyrian/Pelasgian male line fails after 1343 yrs.
Sardanapalus commits suicide by burning his palace down
Trojan War with Hercules the Grecian. Isis Dies.
24. Attosa, Tratre, Ak'urartist, Semyramis II (15)
Queen marries the royal gardener called Belesius or Beletares
25. Beletares, Balatores, Belesius, Narbonassarus, Nabu-nasir, Nebo-adon-Assur, Naminybrus, Nebuchadnezzar (16), previously Bostangi bachi (chief of the gardens)
Heroic Age
Nebuchadnezzar I, satrap of Arbaces, marries Attosa and builds Bronze gates around Babylon. Second Empire begins.
26. Lamprides (17)
Men were prone to warfare
27. Sosares (18)

28. Lampares (19)

29. Panyas, Pannyas, Pannias (20)

30. Sosarmus (21)
Median king in Eusebius
31. Mithraeus, Myrsus in Herodotus (22)
This line of Heraclidae end with  Candaules, son of Myrsus. "[Cephalion] says that 1000 years had elapsed from Semiramis to King Mitraeus” (Eusebius). This statement only makes sense if we take that as Semiramis I.
32. Teutamus, Tudhaliya IV in Rohl (2008)
Hittites invade Western Anatolia - see Rohl (2008). Comtemp. with Agamemnon and Menelaeus. Priam was General of Phrygia at this point. Teutamus sent 10,000 Ethiopian troops to Troy.
33. Teutaeus, Telepinu(sh) in Rohl (2008)
Repels Achilles (possibly Asa of Judah - who had diseased feet). Teutaeus aids Troy VII but fails
34. Thinaeus, Theneus
Dorian Invasion of the Peloponnese
35. Dercylus, Deioces (Mede), Derusus
Iron Age
36. Empacmes, Eupalmes

37. Laosthenes
Men warlike, greedy and impious
38. Pertiades, Peritiades
Navigation and mining commonplace
39. Ophrataeus, Phraortes (Mede)

40. Ephecheres

41. Acraganes, Anakyndaraxes, Acrazanes, Cyaxares, Anabaxares, Ocrazapes, Cindaraxes, Chyniladon, Saracus, Sineladanos, Kinelanadan, Kandalanu, Merodachbaladan, Ben Merodach, Pul (the Mede)
Fought against Cyrus I and his own General Narbopolassar
42. Thonos Concolerus, Narbopolassar, Alyattes
T.C. was General Narbopolassar
43. Nebuchadnezzar II
Builds further upon the work of Sennacherib - establishing the Hanging Gardens in Nineveh for Amytis his wife

Figure 6: Synchronisms between Israel, Judah, Egypt and Assyria/Anatolia/Greece

Figure 7: Samothean King List

Samothea: 0. Japhet - 1. Samothes Dis - 2. Magus - 3. Sarronius - 4. Druiyus - 5. Bardus - 6. Longho - 7. Bardus Junior - 8. Lucus - 9. Jupiter Celtes - 10. Hercules (Lehabim) - 11. Galates - 12. Harbon - 13. Lugdus - 14. Beligius - 15. Iasius - 16. Allobrox - 17. Romus - 18. Paris - 19. Lemanus - 20. Olbius - 21. Galates II - 22. Nannes - 23. Remis - 24. Francus - 25. Pictus

Endnotes or Commentary on the Chronology:

[1] The covenant made with Abraham involved God telling him what would happen to his descendants (the children of Israel or Jacob) after his own death (cf. Genesis 15:13-14) in a land (singular) not theirs. It did not pertain to Isaac in Canaan, when Abraham was still alive. Isaac was forbidden to enter Egypt (Gen. 26:2). Moreover, God describes a period of 400 years of affliction (not an approximate number standing for 430 but an exact number cf. Acts 7:6-7) after which time the Egyptian nation whom they serve shall be judged and then they shall ‘come out with great possession’. Note that if Egypt and Canaan are meant here (as the LXX has it), then this phrase ‘shall come out’ would be erroneous – because with that reading they were still in the land of affliction in Canaan where they fled. To maintain biblical truth, we must hold to a long dwelling in Egypt. How then, do we explain the period of Galatians 3:17? We have to understand that the covenant was only given to Abraham and then afterward confirmed in 1963 B.C. (as a statute in Christ) to Jacob on the very night before he entered Egypt to visit Joseph (cf. Genesis 12:4, Gen. 15:13, Gen. 46:2-7, Exodus 12:41, Psalm 105:10-11, Acts 7:6). This explains why Exodus 12:41 notes it was 430 years to the very day that the children of Israel left Egypt. Another line of evidence is that careful Scriptural study cannot establish that Judah’s genealogy supports a 215 year sojourn. It simply cannot be maintained that the Hur of 1 Chron. 2:19 and 2:50 (who are actually both the same person) was the same Hur who married Miriam the sister of Moses and Aaron. The alleged linkage is too weak, since both Ruben and Judah both had sons called Hezron – and since Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite (Joshua 14:6) can hardly also be the son of Hezron! (1 Chron. 2:18). The chronologies do not give birth/death ages in these particular sections and so cannot be treated as exact as some would wish. The final line of evidence comes from the fact that the ancestry of Moses’ family in Exodus 6:16-20 is modestly abridged to tribe, clan and family (Minge, 2007:63). The ‘fourth generation’ return mentioned in Gen. 15:16 denotes a generation from Abraham’s perspective (i.e. about 100 years). In fact, there were eleven generations (of about 40 years) from Joseph to Joshua (1 Chron. 7:22-27) and eleven generations from Jacob to Elkanah (1 Chron. 6:33-38) in the genealogy of Heman, both consistent with the long sojourn period.
[2] Austin (2008:52) includes the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 as ‘Period 3a’ of his ‘Table 1’. Biblically, it can be proven that another 114 years of servitude ‘in metaphorical Egypt’ (‘Period 3b’) are necessary to do justice to Luke’s summary of this period in Acts 13. If the years of usurpation and servitude are totalled in this period they come to exactly 114 years. Therefore as Setterfield (1999) points out, the ‘Omission principle’, found elsewhere in Scripture, is also at work in this verse of 1 Kings.
[3] Although I knew of works by Edumnd Thiele and Prof. Kenneth Kitchen I also knew from Larry Pierce that Thiele had significant errors in his chronology where he had altered Scripture to accommodate archaeological discoveries. Kitchen, I had already discovered in James’s critique (1991:222), held to the high dynastic chronology of Egypt, which I knew for sure was spurious given the no-gaps chronologies of the Masoretic text (Genesis 5 and 11). Therefore I chose my sources carefully from those who held Scripture as their highest and best authority in chronological data.
[4] The 42nd ruler, Thonos Concoleros, is called ‘Sardanapalus’ by Alexander Polyhistor as quoted by Eusebius (The Chaldean Chronicle, 9: From the same Alexander [Polyhistor] on the deeds and valor of Sennecherib and Nebuchadnezzar). He can therefore be equated with Narbopolassar the father of Nebuchadnezzar II (who conquered Jerusalem in 506BC).
[5] This figure of precisely 42 previous Monarchs is given strong archaeological support from Nebuchadnezzar II’s own “Borsippa Inscription”, which says of the Tower of Babel: “A former king built it (they reckon forty-two ages ago), but he did not complete its head. Since a remote time people had abandoned it, without order expressing their words. Since that time the earthquake and the thunder has dispersed its sun-dried clay; the bricks of the casing had been split, and the earth of the interior had been scattered in heaps. Merodach, the great lord, excited my mind to repair this building. I did not change the site, nor did I take away the foundation stone. … As it had been in former times, so I founded, I made it; as it had been in ancient days, so I exalted its summit.” Smith’s Bible Dictionary quoted in Inc. Book Sales (2002). This 'Borsippa Inscription' found on the base of a ziggurat was translated by a Professor Oppert, but later included with a new translation in the book: 'Travels and Researches in Chaldea and Sinai (London: James Nisbet, 1857) by William Kennett Loftus. It mentions the restoration of the Tower of Babel. You can see Nebuchadnezzar's other inscription of the Tower of Babel here: . What is truly remarkable, in our opinion, is that Nebuchadnezzar refers to "they reckon 42 ages ago". Who are "they" in the context of this inscription? It seems clear he must be referring to the priests or scholarly record keepers of Babylon itself. This is powerful independent confirmation that Nanni was using a genuine copy of Berosus the Chaldean Priest as a source, because without knowledge of Nebuchadnezzar's inscription (found long afterward), he still takes us back precisely 5 further rulers in his king list to Noah - i.e. from 37 'ages' (as recorded in Eusebius and St Jerome) to 42 'ages' as mentioned by Nebuchadnezzar himself regarding the Tower of Babel! I have not even begun to enter the debate surrounding the Assyrian Eponym lists, however scholars are beginning to realise that astronomical data used to ‘lock’ key chronological dates are actually quite unreliable (see Newgrosh, 2007).
[6] This unbroken list of rulers of the city of Babylon was obtained through a synthesis of king lists: Lynche (1601), who gives – with a few exceptions - the first 14 rulers; together with Diodorus Siculus, Eusebius and St. Jerome who provide all those upto Thonos Concolerus (Sardanapalus) the 42nd ruler. It is noteworthy that in antiquity there were believed to have been four ‘Ages’ – Golden, Silver, Bronze and Iron. Eusebius and Jerome, following Ctesias and Berosus, begin their king list from the mid-Golden Age with Nynas or Ninus II (the sixth ruler), son of Belus and record Belochus as monarch number 18. The reigns that Nanni’s Berosus enumerates (from the mid-Golden Age to the first Trojan War against Hercules the Grecian) are identical in number – and again end with Belochus (their 18th and my 23rd) – who was Sardanapallus (under whom the Assyrian Empire fell and the ‘Heroic Age’ began). Lynche takes us back to the start of the Golden Age five more rulers - to Noah who established the Monarchy under Nimrod (according to Lynche’s sources). It is also noteworthy that Jerome placed the 42nd ruler (Belochus) in 830BC which suggests he conflated Belochus (the 23rd ruler from Noah) with Thonos Concolerus the 42nd. Both these kings seem to have had the name Sardanapalus, but the former burnt himself to death (according to Diodorus) whereas the latter died naturally and was succeeded by Nebuchadnezzar II his son. Out of all these 42 rulers, only a handful are mentioned in Herodotus’ ‘The Histories’. The second, Bel (or Ham who is Belus), is mentioned as having both a ‘sanctuary’ (i.e. the Tower of Babel) and a gate in Babylon (Book 1: 181 and Book 3:158 respectively). The 24th, Semiramis II is mentioned as having a Babylonian gate (Book 3:155). The 35th monarch - Deioces, and the 39th Pharotes - his descendent – plus the 41st Cyaraxes are all mentioned as Kings of the Medes, confirming Cephalion’s list of Median kings (found in Eusebius).
[7] For a translation into modern English see: [WWW] (Accessed on 17/06/12).
[8] Giants are mentioned by Moses in Genesis 6:4. Lynche claims that Noah was a giant himself, along with many of his descendants (especially in the line of Ham). These giants are not of the fabulous sort (60 feet tall) but rather consistent with physical limits i.e. 8-11 feet tall (as was Goliath of Gath). Temple (2011:203) mentions that many Egyptian tombs are far larger than would be necessary for an average sized body. Sesokhris (Khasekhem) was stated by Manetho to have been 5 cubits and 3 palms high, “…which would be about 8 English feet, if the short cubit of 17.4 inches were used.” In fact, Manetho is probably referring to the royal Egyptian cubit!
[9] These truths are often overlooked in most assessments and reappraisals of ancient history, yet they have a truly revolutionary significance for scholarly research today. Long virility coupled with longevity meant that Mizraim the son of Ham was 1st generation post-flood - yet he was only born long after Abraham – the 10th generation from Shem, and lived (because of his genetic inheritance) until well after the death of Moses! If we discount Lynche’s claim, for instance, that Queen Isis (daughter of Ham and thus 1st generation post-flood) lived from approx. 1755BC until 1140BC, some 615 years, we must also discount the reputable Jewish historian Josephus who wrote: “Now I have for witnesses to what I have said all those that have written Antiquities, both among the Greeks and barbarians, for even Manetho, who wrote the Egyptian history, and Berosus, who collected the Chaldean monuments, and Mochus, and Hestiaeus, and beside these, Hieronymus, the Egyptian, and those who composed the Phoenician history, agree with what I here say: Hesiod also and Hecataeus, Hellanicus, and Acusilaus, and besides Ephorus and Nicolaus relate that the ancients lived a thousand years; but as to these matters, let every one look upon them as he thinks fit.” Patten (1981) comments that: “Josephus and his colleagues had read widely throughout the antiquities of the Mediterranean world, at that time under Rome. His mind-set was based in part on the collage of ancient international sources and their unanimity. There were no contradictions. The ancient longevity accounts with which he was acquainted extended far beyond the borders of his native Palestine. His sources came from no less than three continents. Such sources, when in unison, to Josephus far outweighed the contemporary rationalizations and cynics, however reasonable and well-intentioned. His sources came from areas which today include Africa, Asia and Europe […] one can sum up a total of 14 or 15 ancient sources, coming from three continents and at least 6 different ancient languages. Of these ancient sources familiar to Josephus other than the Biblical sources, only a few fragments and a few manuscripts survive. This may be one reason why modern academia is less impressed with this ancient tradition than was Josephus.” For more on this fascinating topic of longevity and its consequences for ancient records see Shuckford, S. (1824:226-233).
[10] Briefly, we shall establish the authenticity of Giovanni Nanni beyond reasonable doubt. First, let us consider the language that Nanni’s Berosus was originally written in. Ligota (1987:56) notes that Nanni frequently referred to Aramaic (ancient Hebrew/Arabic) words in Berosus and also suggests that it was this language Berosus wrote in. Ligota’s suggestion logically follows because Nanni obtained the fragments from two visiting Armenians of the Domincan Order of Monks (or Friars) – (Master Mathias and Master Georgius according to Farrer, 1907:76) – the latter of whom gave him the fragments as a gift in Genoa. The existence of this Master Georgius is no longer questioned, for it is certain that both the monks visited Genoa in the Summer of 1474 or the Spring of 1475 (Danielsson, O. (1992:10) and John, R.T. (1994:22)). That the Berosus fragments were originally written in Aramaic (ancient Chaldean) is confirmed by William Harrison in Parry (2001:11 – footnote 34) who revered the brevity of Nanni’s Berosus as an example of “the auncient forme of writing used by Antiquitie…untill the use of history came in place (or at lest was knowen among the gentiles)”. Moreover, a Hebrew Berosus further elucidates Nanni’s comments mentioned in Grafton (1991:90), namely that: “Annius could certainly borrow some texts from his Armenian confreres and ask advice on Hebrew and Aramaic from his Jewish friend the still unidentified ‘Samuel the Talmudist,’”. As Wiener (2012:203) counters: “…obviously [this was] Samuel Zarfati, the court physician of Alexander VI, a most learned Spanish Jew.” Therefore it is safe to conclude that Nanni studied the Latin translation given him with aid from a Jewish friend who knew Aramaic Hebrew. It is interesting that Nanni did not know who had first translated the fragments and found them hard to understand – making reference to “Berosus or his translator” (Ligota, 1987:55) in his ‘Commentaries” of 1498. This suggests the books were old when Nanni was first given them (as Harrison in Parry (p.10) comments: “thes bokes are at the lest 500 yeres olde…” [Parry adding] “for Godfrey of Viterbo [AD1120-1196] knew them centuries before Annius”. (Parry later states that Godfrey only mentions the genuine Berosus – but that remains to be determined). Indeed, the wider story could be this: fragments of the three authentic books of Aramaic Berosus had survived the fire at the Library of Alexandria. Around AD378, a Spanish-born Bishop of Alexandria, named Lucius Valerius, relocated to Samosata (modern Samsat in Adiyaman Province, Turkey) with these various fragments, where he undertook a Latin recension into five parts. We learn this much from The Chronicle of (Pseudo)-Dexter (this being the disputed history chronicle of the bishop of Barcelona in Spain, Flavius Lucius Dexter, the son of Pacianus, who flourished approx AD395 according to his contemporary St. Jerome – see: Dexter’s work plus other Spanish ecclesiastical chronicles were claimed to have been rediscovered by the Jesuit J. Roman de la Higuera (1538-1611) in the library of the Benedictine Abbey of Fulda in Germany. If we take Dexter’s work as authentic and not a fabrication designed by Higuera, it neatly explains why Nanni had five books of Berosus (rather than the original three) given to him by Armenian (Turkish) Dominican Monks in Genoa. Alternatively, Nanni's copy of Berosus may have been preserved via a lost translation made into Armenian by the Syrian scholar Mar Abas Catina (late 2nd century BC), part of which (relating to Armenia alone) was copied by Moses of Khorene (approx 8th centry AD).
   Secondly, Bayle recounts that Didimus Rapaligerus Livianus mounted a posthumous defence of Nanni in 1678BC saying that: “It is very well known…that Berosus was given him at Genoa, by Father George of Armenia a Dominican [Friar]; and that he found all the rest [i.e. fragments of Archilochus, Metasthenes, Cato, Fabius Pictor, Myrsilus, C. Sempronius, Philo, Xenophon and Antoninus Pius], except Manetho, at one Mr Williams’s of Mantua” (Bayle et al, 1737:299). Now, some fierce critics (e.g. Fumagalli) have tried to dismiss this ‘Mr Williams’ as a figment. Who exactly was he? The answer, it turns out, is quite simple. Nanni refers to him as “Guilelmus Mantuanus” and dates his collections to the year AD1315 in Mantua (Ligota, 1987:56). Now it so happens that Charles Cawley’s ‘Medieval Lands’ the encyclopaedia of territories in the medieval western world, found online at the web address referenced above, elucidates this mysterious Guilelmus. Cawley contains the following very interesting statement: “Matthew of Paris recounts that…Guglielmo VII Marchese di Monferrato [AD1240-1292]…was appointed Vicar-General in northern Italy by his father-in-law as candidate for the kingdom of Italy, and led the movement to oust Charles Comet d’Anjou from the kingdom of Sicily. He succeeded in depriving the latter of his possessions in Lombardy and captured and castrated his ambassadors [probably between AD 1272 and 1275]. He became head of the Ghibelin League formed by the Marchese di Saluzzo [Thomas I (AD 1239-1296) – Ed.] and contingents from Castile in the towns of Pavia, Asti, Mantua, Verona, Genoa, Milan, Alessandria and Ivrea.” Nanni visited Mantua with the Most Reverend Cardinal Paul de Campo Fulgoso in the 1480’s, who he mentions in a letter to his brother Thomas. Clearly, Guglielmo later became known as Guilelmus of Mantua and his Collectanea (collection of ancient authors) was where Nanni obtained his fragments of the 9 lost authors. The collection of Guglielmo (which he must have repossessed from Charles I of Naples in Norther Italy) would have come originally from Sicily. Mantua library was probably opened to honour William’s name, in AD1315, by his close kinsman Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat. This would neatly explain why Nanni in his Antiquities of 1498 makes mention of a learned Talmudist, Rabbi Moses, who is probably the Sicilian Moses of Palermo who lived in the second half of the 13th century and translated various works of old Arabic into Latin for Charles I of Naples. Charles d’Anjou, as he was know, was renowned for his love of learning and at that time had commissioned a number of Jewish scholars to translate Arabic works into Latin as part of the ‘Latin Renaissance’. Livianus cites a Lutheran saying of the fragments Nanni obtained in Mantua: “…they are all of them interpolated, castrated, imperfect, and neither translated with fidelity of judgement: and yet that they were anciently extracted from those true and legitimate authors, there are such arguments as can admit of no contradiction. To instance only in [the 22 fragments of] Cato. Examine it again and again, condemn it as you will, yet you must see and confess that it discovers the wit and style of the true Cato, which are not to be imitated or counterfeited by such sort of persons”.
   Let us then move now to consider the works impact on Protestant Theologians. It is noteworthy that eminent Reformers with a high view of Scriptural inspiration, together with other intellectual scholars just as capable, held Nanni (or Annius) in great esteem. Martin Luther “preferred Annius’s Berosus to Herodotus and his ilk” (Grafton, 1991:87) and found it his richest non-biblical source. Philipp Melanchthon used his history extensively, as did Melanchthon’s student Johann Funck, who considered Nanni’s Berosus “the most approved history of the Babylonians” yet rejected Nanni’s Metasthenes as inconsistent (Grafton, 1991:98). In Protestant Geneva he was also held in high esteem by the well respected Abraham Bucholzer who incorporated Nanni’s work into his Isagoge chronologica of 1577. And others, like Guillaume Postel and members of the intellectual Florentine Academy (such as Pier Francesco Giambullari), who were far less Scriptural yet just as erudite, also considered Nanni’s works genuine. Postel may have ‘touched it with a pin’ when he wrote that Nanni’s Berosus had a bad reputation because “he passed down to posterity an account similar to that in the sacred [books], and thus is despised and ridiculed by men poorly disposed toward divine things, because of the very quality for which he ought to be praised and preferred to all other authors”. He also noted that “Berosus sometimes told stories that redounded to the discredit of the Chaldeans, and a witness testifying against his own interest deserves belief” and again “Though Berosus the Chaldean is preserved in fragments, and is disliked by atheists or enemies of Moses, he is approved of by innumerable men and authors expert in every language and field of learning. Hence I grant him the faith deserved of any accurate author” (Grafton, 1991:82,95). Here, Postel is echoing a very significant truth. As John (1994:24) notes: “In the commentaries to his forged texts Annius referred to fifty-eight ancient authors whose works he might well have known at first hand. All of them, bar one -- the Orphic Argonautica -- had appeared in print by the mid-1490s, and those originally in Greek had been translated. The range of his reading is impressive. He drew on all the standard encyclopaedists: Pliny, Solinus, Aulus Gellius, Macrobius and Isidore of Seville. He was familiar with the historians one would expect to be relevant: Herodotus, Livy, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Diodorus Siculus, Appian, Sallust, Josephus, Eusebius, Trogus as epitomised by Justinus, Valerius Maximus, Quintus Curtius Rufus and Plutarch. He also used the geographers Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy, the mythographer Hyginus and the Christian apologist Lactantius. Rather surprising, however, was his dependence upon poets, who are almost as numerous as historians. They include Homer, Vergil, Silius Italicus, Juvenal, Ovid, Martial, Valerius Flaccus, Horace, Tibullus, Propertius and Lucan. In conjunction with these he used ancient commentaries on poets, most notably Servius on Vergil, but also the pseudo-Acron and Porphyrion on Horace.”
   As regards Nanni’s supposed fraudulent inscriptions and statuettes, Livianus in Bale also notes, from a source (Giornale VIII, de Letterati, 1678, p.122) that: “…He is accused of forging some tables of marble, whereof he has published an explanation. If therefore the truth deserves examining, this author clears Annius by substantial arguments from his adversaries charge of imposture, proving beyond contradiction, that two of those tables called Libiscillæ, from the place where they were found, had been dug up a long time before Annius was born…. And as to those two called Cibelariæ, and that called Longobarica, they were discovered by others and presented to [Pope] Alexander VI, to say nothing of that called Osiriana, which was brought before the time of Annius.” (Bayle et al, 1737:299). For more on these fascinating tablets and their history, see: Collins, A. (Renaissance Epigraphy and its Legitimating Potential: Annius of Viterbo, Etruscan Inscriptions, and the Origins of Civilization). The Tabula Maeonica Cybelica in the museum of Viterbo, Italy, records the marriage of Jasius Ianigena (Hespanus, Coritus) - king of Italy and France to Ipitis Cybele - a fair and rich princess (which wedding occasion the elderly Queen Isis attended). It refers to an even older tablet (now lost) which recorded the founding of ancient Viterbo (then called Vetulonia - found further north) by Janus (Noah) and his son Cameses - and a later fortified settlement established by Hercules (Lehabim) - probably during the years 1548-1537 BC. Annius believed the newer tablet to have been set up by Pupinus and Marsias - later rulers of the Etruscans. Furthermore, the tablet Decretum Desiderii was said by the 16th Century Domenico Bianchi to date from its discovery in 1219 AD. The 18th Century Etruscologist Mariani claimed it had been fixed to the top of the cathedral in Viterbo until 1380 AD - therefore Annius could not possibly have forged it. (This claim would certainly explain its dome-like shape). It records the founding of Viterbo from 3 previous smaller habitations called Longula, Turrhena and Vetulonia via a single large town wall. The final tablet - called the 'Herculean Tablet of Osyris' - is the most remarkable of all. It contains various glyphs Annius believed were Egyptian (Pelasgian) in origin, including a tree, a lizard, a growing vine with grape clusters, two birds eating grapes and possibly a goose nesting at the top with eggs. In fact, the lizard or gekko at the bottom of the tree matches precisely the Egyptian hieroglyph 'asha', meaning many, numerous or multitude. The two birds probably represent colonies founded by Osyris - who feed on the grape vines he was famous for growing. The nesting 'goose' at the top is another name for Iped or Isis (the wife of Osyris), also found (coincidentally) in the Turin Canon (fragment 41 and 42) along with other "wholly fictitious beings" or "fantastically named royalties" such as Apis - dismissed by incredulous scholars (see Rohl, 2008, pg 100). Third, and finally, none of the arguments used by his critics to discredit Annius have proven very persuasive to this author. Critics such as Eduardo Fumagalli, Beatus Rhenanus, Pietro Crinito, Juan Luis Vives, Francois Baudouin and Joannes Goropius Becanus were in many cases influenced by the spirit of secular humanism and provide weak, insubstantial claims against his works. We shall now instance some of these bogus arguments and provide a brief rebuttal of each. 1: Pseudo-Berosus evidences great harmony with the other fragments, which harmony can only be obtained through Nanni’s personal authorship and intervention. A: Ligota (1987:45), however, comments: “…the [supposedly] forged texts are set in a mosaic of references to authentic ones - a theoretical framework does emerge. Indeed, though the ancient texts Annius invented have a story to tell, their function, as the commentaries make clear, is as much to show why the story is true as to tell it, that is, to unfold the story as a demonstration of its veracity”. Then, Ligota notes in a footnote: “Telling this one story, which in the Judeo-Christian scheme is the only (true) story there is, allowing for no external point of view. As long as the scheme obtains, criteria for historical truth cannot be entirely abstracted from the specific history they are derived from because they are also an integral part of its content”. Thus we find that this ‘doctoring’ argument backfires and serves to show the remarkable unity between various authors which would be expected to obtain should they all have recorded what actually happened. 2: It is absurd to think that a Babylonian knew anything in detail about countries so far away, or that the art of navigation was so advanced in Noah’s time that he dared travel all over the world. A: The extraordinary cargo of the ship-wreck of Uluburun has proven that the ancients travelled far further than previously thought. Berosus would have had access to many merchant traders who visited Babylon. Noah did not travel all over the world. According to Berosus, he ventured only around the Mediterranean Sea and the countries surrounding it. 3. Pseudo-Berosus never mentions the Hebrews (the Assyrian’s close neighbours). A: It is well attested that all the kings of Assyria from Ninus to Belochus were dissolute individuals who hated war and conflict and remained permanently in their royal palaces to pursue every pleasure. Thus it is not surprising that they do not record encounters with the Hebrews.
[11] According to the detailed source study found in the Ph.D. thesis of learned Professor R.T. John (1994:23): “Since the work [of Annius] has almost always been dismissed as a collection of forgeries, rather than read as a history of primeval Europe, as Annius intended, no-one has attempted to analyse its ancient, medieval and modern sources. It has rather been assumed that he must have invented much of what he wrote, both in the texts and in the commentary. On close examination, it becomes apparent that this is not the case at all. Throughout the work Annius continually supported his spurious authors with the testimony of later genuine ones; he had sufficient historical awareness to point out that the later authors he cited were of course following his own much earlier, and therefore more reliable, historians.” The best external evidences (i.e. independent from the claims of the once well respected classical historians like Eusebius and Tacitus) are a few significant details which collectively persuaded me (J.Powell) of the veracity of Giovanni Nanni’s history: 1. Nebuchadnezzar II’s own statement (excavated in the 1800's, concerning '42 ages' - a fact I came across only after the synthesis of classical king lists back to Noah – who was clearly proven number one. 2. Temple's (2011) description of Mezorah of Morocco - which fits remarkably with Lynche's account of Hercules' circular tomb built by the Spanish. 3. Knight and Butler's work (based upon Thom) in the identical units of measurement used by the megalith builders across the globe and their claimed fascination with the stars. 4. Menzies (2011) work showing that international trade in ancient history was extensive and complex based upon the extraordinary cargo of the ship-wreck of Uluburun. 5. The warrior steles found in Spain which depict a circular megalithic tomb (which are clearly ancient renditions of the megalithic tomb of Mezorah in Morocco) – see Figure 4. And finally 6. The work of Nanno Marinatos (2010) who describes the culture of Crete as part of an international milieu which included cryptographic symbols of the Ark, the mountains of Ararat, the children of Noah etc. Many other, smaller details, were also borne out by reference to more ancient historical sources than Nanni himself.
[12] This is 293 years before Lynche’s date of 2317BC To arrive at this date I accept as correct David Austin’s claim for a short Persian period (Austin, 2008a) and his detailed, peer-reviewed and Scripturally validated calculations back until the Exodus in 1533BC (c.f. Austin, 2008b and 2011); however I do not accept his date for the entry of Jacob into Egypt. This occurred 430 years before the Exodus (in 1963BC) as we are told in Galatians 3:17 and as Bowden (1998: 151-153) has persuasively argued contra- Viccary (2007). This date is also consistent with Diodorus Siculus’s claim that the Assyrian Empire lasted more than 1300 years before the Mede’s took power under Arbaces. From the Tower of Babel (2504 B.C.) until the 23rd Babylonian monarch (Belochus or Sardanapalus – after whom the Line of Ham failed) is approx. 1350 years. This period is clearly the “time of the kings of Assyria” mentioned in Nehemiah 9:32.
[13] The Ark as described by Fasold (1988) and as represented by the sun disc and cosmic egg is consistent with both Scripture (Genesis 6:14-16) and with the general design features of the ancient Egyptian boats found buried at Giza. These Egyptian ‘sacred boats’ were involved in an elaborate ritual held outside the temples of Isis and Osyris (Temple, 2011), which remembered the cataclysm and the Ark in pagan cultish fashion. Similar ‘sacred boat’ processions were held around the Mediterranean. The Ark itself probably had an asymmetric centre of gravity and if Fasold’s fascinating reconstruction is correct it suggests that the cubits used were of the ancient Egyptian (royal cubit) variety, measuring 523-529 mm. To the ancient Chinese a vegetable gourd was their most immediate analogy for the Ark’s shape – thus the early Rulers of China were called ‘Fu Xi’ or children of the ‘bottle gourd’. 
[14] Line 37 of the cuneiform tablets of the Epic of Gilamesh calls this hill ‘Mount Mashu, which daily guards the rising and setting of the Sun, above which only the dome of the heavens reaches and whose flank reaches as far as the Netherworld below’ (Nissen, 2004:108). The village of Uzengili (originally Nazar or Nizir) is close to the village of Arzap (called the ‘Village of the Eight’ in the ‘Valley of the Eight’).
[15] Chapter 8 of Marinatos (2010) is most important in understanding this mountain. Marinatos (2010:107-113) notes this sacred mountain in East Mediterranean koine: “The Egyptian symbol consists of two peaks that define the horizon between which the sun disc resides. On Akkadian seals of the third millennium we find a very similar rendition of the mountain represented as two scaly cones that signify “land”. In Syria and Anatolia, the twin peaks also symbolize a mountain, sometimes a double one. The twin peak mountain defines the edges of the cosmos. […] It has been previously mentioned that we do not see offerings (bread, meat, incense, etc.) between the peaks of the object that has been redefined as a mountain; therefore, its function cannot have been to sanctify offerings. Instead, the two peaks frame a tree, a double axe, or a god. All of these are symbols of cosmic significance and not votives that can be consecreated. […] In summary: the tree rising between the Minoan twin-peak mountain is not consecrated as an offering but constitutes the tree of life. This is the solar palm…” Clearly, this was where humanity began afresh.
[16] This name is found in the most ancient and important creation myth of Egypt, called the Ogdoad of Hermopolis (cf: and is given because the sun god was said to be born and to rise there for the first time. The story is believed to predate the cosmogony of Heliopolis, having been originally established by Thoth (i.e. Lehabim). Armour (1986:153-154) notes an early papyrus which records: “Salutations to you, you Five Great Gods, Who come out of the City of Eight, You who are not yet in heaven, You who are not yet upon the earth, You who are not yet illuminated by the sun”. “The poem tells how, on the Island of Flame, the primeval hill similar to the one on which Ra arose, the four gods came into being at the same time; they were seen as some sort of force that existed between heaven and earth…Each element brought with him his female component, giving the total of eight elements. The group included Nun…and his consort Naunet; Heh…with his consort Heket…; Kek…and his consort Keket;…and Amun with his consort Amaunet”. Armour amusingly suggests the story is “a mythical explanation of the ebbing of the Nile flood, which left behind it mounds of earth teeming with life”; yet it bears a striking resemblance to the landing of the Ark – especially since from the ‘Cosmic Egg’ the ‘bird of light’, an aspect of the sun god, burst out! The Egyptian Coffin Texts, spell 223, contain the note: “O Atum give me this sweet air which is your nostrils for I am this egg which is in the Great Cackler, I am the guardian of this great prop which separates the earth from the sky. If I live, it will live; if I grow old, it will grow old; if I breathe the air, it will breathe the air.  I am he who splits iron, I have gone round about the egg, (even I) the Lord of Tomorrow.”
[17] Lynche (1601) records that Noah showed his sons their territories in the 100th year after the flood. Before this, his family must have inhabited Turkey and built some of the most ancient monuments in that country. The 25 years is an approximation only during this period.
[18] Lynche (1601) mentions an ancient marble called the ‘Issue of Noah’ which he found and inscribed a history onto just after the flood. This marble may have once stood within the megalithic henge of Zorats Karer near Sisian. This observatory-tomb is very similar to others found in Europe and Morocco, suggesting a cultural link. One significant difference, however, is that some stones have well polished holes cut through them only here in Armenia. This is consistent with Fasold’s claim that such stones were used by Noah as anchor stones on the Ark. After the Cataclysm, these anchor stones were transported and reused to construct the world’s very first megalith (Fasold, 1988).
[19] Giovanni Nanni probably didn’t know that a place called Urfa existed, yet he mentioned that Noah was called Arsa and had many place names called after him. This is one argument in favour of his records being authentic.
[20] This is speculation on my part, but the claim is reasonable given the great antiquity of Gobekli Tepe and the fact that they travelled eastward to inhabit Babylonia (Genesis 11:2). Some interpret the word ‘eastward’ as ‘from the east’ i.e. ‘westward’. The same Hebew word is hard to translate, yet is given in Genesis 2:8 as ‘eastward’. Gobekli Tepe is unusual since the stone carvings found there are of species now completely foreign to Turkey.
[21] The reader interested in studying population growth after the flood is referred to Morris (1966). At the Tower of Babel incident there were probably 70 families of some 10-15 individuals – giving roughly 700-1500 people. By the entry of Abraham into Canaan around the 10th generation, there would have been roughly 2,800,000 people in the world at a conservative estimate.
[22] C.f. Inc Book Sales (2002) where we are given a description of the Tower of Babel. Building of this tower probably began 80 years after the flood.
[23] Ussher (2003:22) notes that the Tower of Babel happened five years after the birth of Peleg according to Syncellus’ translation of the Book of Sothis by Manetho.
[24] Cory and Hodges (2003: 75) note a fragment from Alexander Polyhistor which contains this detail about a strong wind or whirlwind. The same detail is also contained in other more ancient sources. 1st: A damaged Assyrio-Babylonian Tablet now housed in the British Museum reads: “…them the father. (The thoughts) of his heart were evil…the father of all the gods he turned from. (The thoughts) of his heart were evil…Babylon corruptly to sin went and small and great mingled on the mound. … Babylon corruptly to sin went small and great mingled on the mound. The King of the holy mound…In front and Anu [i.e. Ham – Ed.] lifted up…to the good god of his father….Then his heart also…which carried a command…at that time also…which carried a command…At that time also…he lifted it up…Davkina. Their (work) all day they founded to their stronghold in the night entirely an end he made. In his anger also the secret council he poured out to scatter (abroad) his face he set he gave a command to make strange their speech…their progress he impeded…the altar…In (that day) he blew and…For future time the mountain…Nu-nam-nir went…Violently they fronted against him. He saw them and to the earth (descended). When a stop he did not make of the gods…Against the gods they revolted…violence…Violently they wept for Babylon very much they wept. And in the midst…”. 2nd: The Sibyl mentions: “When all men spoke a common language, certain of them built an exceeding high tower, thinking thereby to mount to heaven. But the gods sent winds against it and overturned the tower and gave to every man a peculiar language; whence it comes that the city was called Babylon.” Also c.f. the book of Job Chapter 38 vs 1.
[25] Lynche (1601) recounts Tanais as Noah’s point of departure on his first 10 year voyage to establish boundaries. It is reasonable to suggest that he planted a vineyard close to the habitation based upon ancient wine vessels found at this location and the tradition that Noah was the ‘giver of wine’.
[26] Lynche (1601) notes that Noah undertook at least two voyages around the Mediterranean, the first of which took 10 years.
[27] This information comes from Lynche (1601).
[28] This name comes from the historian Johannes Turmair (contemporary of the Reformer Martin Luther) who published a king list in his Annals of Bavaria. For more information see: [WWW] (Accessed on 26/08/11).
[29] This detail comes from Shuckford, S. (1824). The Sacred and Profane History of the World… Book 3, p. 104.
[30] For more information about the post-Cataclysm ice-age, please see Oard (2004) and Snelling (2009:763-787).
[31] Another son of Javan was named Iobaath in the historian Nennius (Cooper, 1995:49), Ithobaal the ‘priest of Astarte’ in the Annals of Tyre (Aubet, 2001:148) and Jobhath in early Irish genealogy (Cooper, 1995:111-112).
[32] Shuckford, S. (1824). p. 103-115, Kitchen, K. (2003). p. 592-597 and Cooper, B. (1995). p. 170-204.
[33] According to the Iranian historian al-Tabarī (d. 310 AH/923 AD) in his Ta’rikh 1:326, translated in McCants (2012:109): “the first king to rule the earth [Persia] was Ōshahanj b. Eber b. Shelah b. Arphachshad b. Shem b. Noah.” This Ōshahanj is also called Ūshing, Ūshang, Hōshang – whom we have identified as Ham.
[34] Isaiah 23:13.
[35] Ibid endnote 30.
[36] This Huang-Di is recorded as the first to make sacrifices on Mount Tai in China – see Thong, C. and Fu, C. (2009:234).
[37] The full Chinese story of the children of the ‘bottle gourd’, the sole survivors of a great flood, is found in Willis (ed.) (1993:93). It was commonly recounted in the oral traditions of the Miao and Yao peoples of South China.
[38] This is Manetho’s record – who places 8 ‘demi-gods’ and ’15 heros’ (660 years) before the birth of king Mizraim.
[39] For this geneological information see Hoeh, H.L. (1967 and 1969) Compendium of World History. Volumes 1 and 2.
[40] Lynche (1601) makes Dionysius the son of Almanthea (another wife of Hammon). However, here we follow a fragment of Sanchoniathon (extracted from Eusebius), which can be found in Cory and Hodges (2003:13). Sanchoniathon calls Dionysus by the name of Kronus, but the same person which Lynche calls Dionysus is clearly meant (given the context).
[41] That Jupiter Belus was a son of Ham (Kronus) is found in a fragment of Sanchoniathon (extracted from Eusebius) and in a fragment of Eupolemus, both of whom are contained in Cory and Hodges (2003:14 and 82).
[42] Isaac Newton in his ‘Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended’ cites the historian Pausanias (2nd cen. AD) for this information regarding Phoroneus and the Argives.
[43] Lynche (1601) here seems to be following Dionysius of Halicarnassus (60 – 7BC), who Sir Isaac Newton quoted in his ‘Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended’ as saying: “Oenotrus having found in the western parts of Italy a large region fit for pasturage and tillage, but yet for the most part uninhabited, and where it was inhabited, peopled but thinly; in a certain part of it, purged from the Barbarians, he built towns little and numerous in the mountains; which manner of building was familiar to the ancients…”. Newton also notes he wrote: “…seizing part of it, he built towns in the mountains, little and numerous…but after this colony grew numerous, and began to want room, they expelled the Siculi, compassed many cities with walls, and became possest of all the territory between the two rivers Liris and Tibre…”. “The Sicaneans were reputed the first inhabitants of Sicily, they built little Villages or Towns upon hills, and every Town had its own King; and by this means they spread over the country, before they formed themselves into larger governments with a common King: Philistus”.
[44] Lynche (1601) notes this interesting point, also suggesting that the Italians knew Noah under the alias of Janus. His date for the Flood (2317BC), however, places the founding of this city later in history. Here we must caution that Nanni (Lynche’s main source) was a Librarian of the Vatican collections and therefore he may possibly have increased the antiquity of this city to please the Roman Catholics.
[45] Fragment of Sanchoniathon in Cory and Hodges (2003:13). In this part of the fragment, Ouranos is Noah and Kronus is Ham. However names in Sanchoniathon are inconsistent and generic and must be specified by the context of events.
[46] Lynche (1601) and other historians are admittedly confused about this person. Perhaps there were two people known as Poisedon or Neptune – the first was the son of Ham and the second was the son of Mizraim. Either way, their descendents were feared as tyrannical giants.
[47] This date for Abraham’s birth differs from many reputable scholars including Ussher and Jones, yet it is carefully based upon Scripture since according to Bowden’s revised timeline (Bowden, 1998:177-180), where he notes (based on Acts 7:4) that Terah was at least 130 years old when he had Abraham, Abraham was thus born in 2013 Anno Mundi. Given creation most likely took place in 4266BC based on the best scholarship; this means Abraham’s birth date was 2253BC according to these assumptions.
[48] Plutarch in his ‘De Iside et Osiride’, vol 2., p.354, notes that Amoun was called ‘The hidden God’. It is believed by some that he was hidden in a cave on Crete since Ham had many of his children executed or imprisoned.
[49] Manetho records these kings as the 15th Dynasty of Egypt.
[50] Nimrod must have been born before 2478BC because he was made Saturn of the Babylonian monarchy by Noah during that year (according to Lynche this was 132 years after the Cataclysm – which he makes to be 2185BC). Here, I have assumed that Nimrod was 609 at his death, meaning he was made Saturn of the Babylonians, by Noah, in the year of his birth (to Cush). Lynche also gives his reign in Babylon as 56 years, however this is totally incongruous with his total lifespan as judged by his Scriptural contemporaries in the line of Shem. 609 years is actually more reasonable!
[51] This Semiramis I repaired Babylon after a damaging flood, and made war on the Indians as recorded by Diodorus Siculus. She was later conflated with Semiramis II (1135-1128BC) who married Beletares (Belesius, Nebuchadnezzar I) – the former keeper of the royal gardens (according to the king list of Eusebius and Hoeh (1967)).
[52] This detail is recorded by Lynche (1601).
[53] This account of the European kings is a synthesis of Lynche (1601) together with Turmair’s king list and a fragment of Sanchoniathon (the latter historian being found in Cory and Hodges (2003:9). In addition, Temple (2011) writes: “It is obvious that the megalith builders, whose stone rings were clearly used for astronomical observation purposes, were significantly advanced in astronomy and geometry. Because they were a maritime civilization, they must have been unrivalled navigators, and that may well be where their knowledge of astronomy and geometry received its original impetus.” Knight and Butler (2011) have done extensive and groundbreaking research into the units of measurement the megalith builders used in many different countries (the Megalithic Yard, Minoan foot etc.). It appears that the constellation Orion was mirrored on the ground in numerous locations across the globe, including Thornborough in England, Giza in Egypt and possibly Sanzhaocun near the ancient capital of Xi’an in China. The megalith builders were totally obsessed with the golden ratio in their geometric plans of the Giza plateau (Temple, 2011) - and coincidently David Fasold discovered the same golden ratio central to the design of what many think are the remains of Noah’s Ark (Fasold, 1988).
[54] Johannes Turmair (contemporary of the Reformer Martin Luther) who published a king list in his Annals of Bavaria. For more information see: [WWW] (Accessed on 26/08/11).
[55] Lynche (1601) and Hoeh (1967) both note this.
[56] Compare Lynche (1601) with Johannes Turmair’s Bayerische and Deutsche Chronik as in the endnote above. Both record Gampar as the 7th king of Germany. German kings continued after Gampar as follows: Schwab (1667-1621), Wandler (1621-1580), Deuto (1580-1553), Alman (1553-1489), Baier (1489-1429), Ingram (1429-1377), Adalger (1377-1328), Larein (1328-1277), Ylsing (1277-1224), Brenner I (1224-1186), Heccar (1186-1155) (who was the Hector of the Trojan War), Frank (1155-1114) etc.
[57] Heyerdahl (1978:323) notes: “The main Roman discovery on the Atlantic coast of Africa was the island city of Lixus, then known as Maqom Semes, ‘City of the Sun’ [Ed: i.e. Lehabim]. Its impressive sun-oriented, megalithic structures were already then so ancient that the Romans considered Lixus ‘The Eternal City’, older than any settlement inside the Mediterranean; in fact, the Romans associated the place with the demi-gods who preceded men on the earth, and ascribed the grave of Hercules to this island of Lixus which overlooked the Atlantic Ocean. Today Lixus is no longer an island, and ships cannot get near the former warfs. The impressive ruins are now to be seen half-buried topping a headland, on a ridge surrounded on all sides by flat fields through which the Lucus River undulates towards the Atlantic shore, now barely visible in the distance. Ships that were undoubtedly in proportion to the colossal structures ashore once docked at what was then an island coast; today not even the tiny four- to six-man reed boats, which have survived among local fishermen, are able to approach the foot of the landlocked hill. A large Roman mosaic of Neptune bears witness to former links with the Ocean, while the ruins of Arab mosques and Roman temples cover earlier Berber and Phoenician structures, refitted in turn from gigantic blocks hauled from far away by the unknown sun-worshippers who first chose the site.” Aubert (2001:162) notes that: “…Pliny adds that in Lixus, in Atlantic Morocco, there was a sanctuary to Heracles (Melqart) that was older than the one in Gadir and he places the mythical Garden of the Hesperides in this area (Pliny Nat. Hist. 19:63). Ancient Lixus, situated on the mouth of the modern Loukkos and in a well-sheltered bay, is close to present-day El Araich or Larache. According to the classical texts, it was apparently the most ancient Phoenician colony in the west, although, like Cadiz, it has not so far yielded any archaeological material earlier than the seventh century BC.”
[58] Menzies (2011) has presented a powerful thesis which shows that Crete was trading copper and drugs with America from a very early date. America became conflated with the volcanic island of Thera, which erupted in ancient times, producing Plato’s myth of the sunken Atlantis.
[59] James (1995, pg. 75) notes that: “Herodotus says that he was told by Egyptian priests that the reign of their first king Menes (i.e. the beginning of their civilization) fell 11, 340 years before the invasion of the Assyrian king Sennacherib…”. Now, it is widely suspected that an extra zero has somehow been added to this figure, meaning he meant 1,134 years. Now Lynche (1601) makes Mizraim (Osyris) about 60 years old when he married his Sister Isis and we also know from Lynche that Isis was born in the first regnal year of Queen Semiramis (i.e. 1755BC). If Mizraim (Menes), being some 10-12 years older than his wife when they married, was thus born in 1767BC (according to the relative chronology provided by Lynche he was born in the reign of Nynas or Ninus II i.e. between 1807-1755BC) and if the reigns of each ruler recorded by Eusebius are correct as we have charted them, this would place Sennacherib’s invasion of Egypt in 633BC - which turns out to be the exact same year (calculated backwards from Nebuchadnezzar’s 524BC ascension) that Sennacherib attempted to destroy Judah under Hezekiah’s kingship, straight after he had captured all the Egyptian and Nubian charioteers! This is only true, however, if we follow Austin and place the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 506BC, some 80 years later than conventionally understood. Surely this precise correlation is more than a coincidence!
[60] Multiple lines of evidence suggest Mizraim was Hammurapi. The evidence is summarised: 1. Mizraim was widely known as Apis, or Jupiter (H)ammon, therefore Hammur-api is very close etymologically. 2. The Israelite slaves were known in Egypt as Hapiru or Apiru – the slaves of Apis. 3. Apis was well-known for his placement of pillars on his conquests, hence the stele of his law codes found in Persia as well as Diyarbekir in Turkey. 4. He arrived in Babylonia/Assyria from India once he discovered that his father Ham had tried (and failed) to conquer Babylonia for himself. 5. Isaiah 52:4 records ‘the Assyrian’ as the oppressor of God’s people. 6. He (Jupiter Ammon) was king of Greece at the time of the Exodus according to Tacitus. 7. The chronology of Egypt’s kings support this identification. 8. Many laws in Hammurapi’s code are similar to the laws given Moses. 9. The Israelites worshipped a golden calf/bull (Apis).
[61] Here it seems we have the first Olympic trainer! Dagon was an idol of the Philistines, the fish god (1 Samuel 5:4), who came out of the Red Sea (from Egypt) and taught much knowledge (hence Berosus describes Oannes as half man, half fish according to their pagan superstitions). The Olympic games must have begun under Mizraim or his son Lehabim about 1750BC. They were later adopted by the Greeks and the first Olympiad there began roughly 776BC Eusebius wrote: “From [Sardanapallus] until the first Olympiad, 40 years elapsed.” I believe this is a copying error and the figure should be 400 years, since Sardanapallus began his rule in 1180BC and 400 years afterward the first Greek Olympiad occurred in roughly 776BC.
[62] Working back from Nebuchadnezzar II who began in 523-4BC we have an unbroken line of Assyrian/Anatolian rulers together with their lengths of reign from Eusebius. This list suggests Semiramis I began her rule in 1755BC This date is also consistent with the history of Queen Isis, who is said (by Lynche) to have been born in the first year of Semiramis I and to have died some 40 years after the first destruction of Troy (i.e. 1140BC) at 615 years old.
[63] For an amazing confirmation of this point, see Marinatos (2010:114-196), where through a study of Minoan art and iconography she establishes a standard shared set of cultural assumptions about the Solar Dynasty of Ham, Mizraim, Isis and Lehabim in the ancient Near East. The Solar Dynasty were sons and daughters of Ham - the sun god. His African/Egyptian dynasty were represented in iconography all over the near eastern world by the ox head, the double-axe, the rosette and split-rosette, the omega-shaped crown, the ankh sacred knot and the incurved altar (which represented the sacred twin-crests of Mt. Yigityatagi where the ark had rested and the sun god had arisen for the first time). Menzies (2011) points out that the Cult of the (Apis) Bull stretched across the ancient world. A Mycean dagger was found inscribed on Stonehenge in Avon, UK. Furthermore, Crete had strong links with Egypt, where the Apis bulls were considered sacred. All this evidence relates to the period here described.
[64] The children of Ammon were the same peoples as the Lubims of II Chronicles 12:3, who fought for pharaoh Shishak.
[65] According to Josephus and Manetho, the Ethiopic war between Mizraim (Kronus, Osyris) and Typhon (Titan) continued for hundreds of years, resulting in the destruction of many descendants of Mizraim, and Moses was one of the last generals to defeat the Ethiopians – shutting them up in a city called Saba or Meroe or Avaris. Plutarch recounts that Typhon (Titan) had the aid of a famous queen of Ethiopia by the name of Aso when he fought against Osyris.
[66] Rohl (1995:268-273) notes: “Avaris was built on a series of sandy hillocks…surrounded by swamplands to the east and south and the river to the west and north. […] Bietak made the startling discovery that the grave goods associated with the majority of these tombs were of Asiatic origin. The people who had populated the sprawling city of Avaris originated from Palestine and Syria! […] an anthropological analysis of the skeletal remains by Eike-Meinrad Winkler and Harald Wilfing shows that more adult women were buried in the settlement than adult men [and] sixty-five per cent of all the burials were those of children under the age of eighteen months. Based on modern statistical evidence obtained from pre-modern societies we would expect the infant mortality rate to be around twenty to thirty per cent. Could this also be explained by the slaughter of the Israelite infant males by the Egyptians? […] In the graves of Stratum G the Austrians found…dismembered sheep, the latter undoubtedly funeral offerings. Analysis of the sheep remains has shown that they were of the long-haired variety. The Asiatic folk of early Avaris introduced the Levantine long-haired sheep into Egypt clearly indicating their pastoralist origins” (cf. Genesis 46:6).
[67] A synchronism was noted here – in that both the invasion of Assyria by Ham and Typhon together with the march of Mizraim’s troops through India and then Assyria and then Turkey occurred chronologically very close. This would suggest Mizraim was in the same area at the same time as his farther Ham, and leads us to the story about Ham’s castration by his son which is normally attributed (wrongly) to Noah.
[68] This 9 year journey comes from Manetho’s account of the Twelfth Dynasty in Egypt. Ammanemes was probably Mizraim and Sesostris was Lehabim or Hercules.
[69] For more recent evidence of this tribe of women warriors, see: Ascherson, N. (2007). Black Sea: The Birthplace of Civilisation and Barbarism. London: Vintage Books. pp. 111-124.
[70] The Poem of Solon
[71] Fragment of Sanchoniathon in Cory and Hodges (2003:11). Atlas is also described as the High King of Atlantis in the Poem of Solon.
[72] Fragment of Sanchoniathon in Cory and Hodges (2003:12). These flints can still be found in Mezorah of Morocco.
[73] Herodotus ‘The Histories’ 1:7 mentions king Agron (also called Argon) the Lydian who was the “son of Ninus, the grandson of Belus, the great grandson of Alcaeus (the son of Hercules)”. Clearly this has been corrupted. It should be read that Argon (Arius) was the son of Ninyas, who was himself the grandson of Jupiter Belus yet also the grandfather of Balanaeus (Alcaeus) the son of Hercules (Lehabim) through Argon’s daughter. This is clear from the king list provided by Berosus and Eusebius and the chronology of international events deciphered. As Herodotus notes, exactly 22 generations follow on from this Agron or Argon, ending with Candaules the son of Myrsus (who was clearly king Mithraeus in the king list of Eusebius). Candaules was usurped by Gyges – another descendant of Lehabim (Hercules) – leading to the dynasty of the Mermnads. This dynasty continued after Gyges: Ardys II, Sadyattes, Alyattes II and Croesus (Kroisos) - who was defeated by the Persians under Cyrus the Great.
[74] Fragment of Sanchoniathon in Cory and Hodges (2003:15). “Kronus, having laid an ambuscade for his father Ouranos in a certain place in the middle of the earth, and having gotten him into his hands, cuts off his private parts near fountains and rivers. There Ouranos was consecrated [deified], and his spirit was separated, and the blood of his private parts dropped into the fountains and the waters of the rivers; and the place is shewn even to this day.” These days, the large blocks of the Turkish stone monument at Eflatun Pinar, meaning "lilac-coloured spring", are believed to be Hittite in origin, although it was once known as Plato’s Spring (see James, 1995, pg. 199). It is strongly reminiscent of Sanchoniathon’s description of Ham’s execution place. Sanchoniathon also notes: “But when Kronus came to man’s estate, by the advice and assistance of Hermes Trismegistus, who was his secretary, he opposed his father Ouranos, avenging his mother [Gē]”. Isaac Newton also records how in the records of the Cretans: “Saturn was expelled his Kingdom and castrated by his son Jupiter.” Gascoigne (2002, pg. 59) notes “The Greeks also say: “She [Gaia i.e. Rhea the bitter wife] provided Kronus with the adamantine sickle and he castrated him.”
[75] Lynche (1601) and Newton’s ‘Chronology of the Ancient Kingdom’s Amended’.
[76] Lynche (1601).
[77] This name Curetes comes from a fragment of Euemerus recorded in Eusebius and contained in Cory and Hodges (2003:173). There, ‘the Curetes’ are described as ‘Priests of Jupiter in the island of Crete, and of the goddess Cybeles – Noah’s wife.
[78] The name Tanais stems from king Targitaus (Tanais) of Scythia, apparently the son of Mizraim (Scythian: Zeus) who took a daughter of the Borysthenes River as his concubine. “…they say altogether, from their first king Targitaus until the invasion of Darius roughly a thousand years passed” (Herodotus, The Histories, Book 4, 5., pp. 236-237). This date agrees with the time which I have placed Mizraim in Tanais from other sources. Targitaus, the first Egyptian king of Scythia, must then have ended his reign in Tanais roughly 1450BC. This is corroborated by Justin (Marcus Justinus) in Book 1 of his Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, English Trans. John Selby Watson (1853), where “Sesostris” and “Tanaus” are princes who engaged in ancient wars before the time of Ninus.
[79] The Araxes (today Aras) river which constitutes the border between Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijani and Iran was probably named after this Queen Araxa. Incidently, the Norwegian scientist, Thor Heyrdahl, believed that the Nordic and Anglo-Saxon peoples came from the area of Caucasus – not far from the Ark landing site. Heyrdahl followed the Islandic historian Snorre Sturlason (AD1200) and discovered that Odin’s heavenly castle Asgaard was actually the Russian town of Asov, where the river Don flows into the Sea of Asov. The Semitic ruler (according to Walter Monington in the Great Chartulary of Glastonbury, MSS Wood, Bodleian Library, Oxford), whose name was Woden (Wodden, UUoden, Voden, UUothen, Othin) was the chief of the Aesir (‘fire worshippers’) who had a castle in Asov before the Romans caused them to flee for Sweden in 60BC. The As-ov, As-gaard (in Danish) or As-gorod (in Russian) was the castle of the Aesir. As evidence, Heyrdahl noted that ancient metal belt holders, rings and armbands from AD 100-200 found near the mouth of the Don River were almost identical to Viking equivalents found in Sweden some 800 years later. Many place names in Snorre’s sagas, such as Tanais, matched the ancient Greek names for places around the Sea of Asov. The Odin-people or Udin people, now found in the Caucasus Mountains of Azerbaidjan, stayed behind when the others escaped north (Nissen, 2004). For more fascinating information on the Anglo-Saxons, see Cooper (1995).
[80] Hoeh (1969) in his Compendium of World History Volume 2, Chapter II, mentions Araxa as the daughter of king Gampar. She is said to have married Libys the son of Oryz (clearly names of Lehabim and Osyris or Mizraim). Herodotus (The Histories, Book 4, 20-22) mentions that the Kingdom of the ‘Royal Scythians’ (who regard all other Scythians as their slaves) was centred near Lake Maeetis (a former name for the Sea of Asov). This agrees with Lynche, who records that Queen Araxa and Tuscus, the wife and son of Lehabim, had their royal residence in Tanais near the mouth of the River Don.
[81] By this time, Mizraim and his wife Isis were particularly skilled in agriculture (which they first began in Lower Egypt according to Lynche). Also noteworthy is the fact that Tanais, their previous habitation before Germany, was a centre of wine production and vine growing - established by Noah himself. The Apennine Mountains of peninsular Italy are apparently named after King Apis.
[82] Lynche (1601) speaks of Dardanus founding Troy and Laomedon later fortifying it with two large walls (c.f. James, 1991 - who notes that these two walls have now been found!). Priam probably added to Laomedon’s great work under his rule (establishing what is known as Troy VII). It is certainly possible that there was more than one destruction of Troy. The first may have been under Hercules the Grecian in the 12th Century and the second under Agamemnon in the 9th Century, with other less famous wars a distinct possibility.
[83] Lynche (1601) and Hoeh (1969) recount this Betus son of Tagus Orma (who is the Togarmah of Genesis 10:3, a son of Gomer. Italy – the house of Togarmah – traded in Italian horses with the sea-port city of Tyre c.f. Ezekiel 27:14).
[84] Giovanni Nanni who was the controversial source used by Lynche, is believed to have found evidential remains of Mizraim’s habitation in this city (which was his native city in Italy). The evidence was alleged by some later critics to have been planted in the ground and Nanni was considered a fraudulent disgrace (see endnote 10). This author holds no strong position on this sordid dispute, but has presented a brief defence in the endnote cited above.
[85] Lynche (1601) but also see Gascoigne (2002:81-84) for a description of these first kings of Samothea. Hoeh (1967) also lists these kings, but he assigns B.C. dates to them which are inconsistent with the wider international chronology of events. Dating many of these kings was extremely difficult, therefore only some have dates associated.
[86] Lynche (1601) recounts that Gerion reigned until the 28th year of Belochus the 10th king of Babylon (which he numbers from Nimrod the ‘Saturn’ of the Empire rather than from Noah). John (1994:47) recounts that in Chaldean his name meant ‘stranger’, while in Greek he was called Chryseos and in Latin Aureus – because of the great treasure he accumulated.
[87] Lynche (1601) notes that Tagus Orma gave his name to the river Tagus in Spain, in which large heaps of gold rich sands were found.
[88] John (1994:63) writes: “Jerónimo Pujades (1568-1635), professor of canon law at the University of Barcelona, provided further support for this theory in his Coronica universal del principal de Cathalunya (1609). There was an inscription, he noted, near the church of S. Jaime which read: "BARCINO AB HERCULE CONDITA". See Figure 5.
[89] Of the 24th Dynasty of Egypt according to Manetho in Cory and Hodges (2003). Accordingly, in his reign a miracle was said to have occurred, in that “a sheep spoke”. This is most probably a derogatory reference to the Israelite Prince Moses standing before Pharaoh.
[90] Clayton (1753:124) states that Nanni’s Berosus places the Exodus in the reign of Ascatades of Babylon, 794 years after the Flood. According to Lynche and Nanni’s 2317BC Flood date, this would be approx. 1523BC, and accordingly Nanni places Isius and Dardanus and the 16th king of Spain at the time of the Exodus which he seems to have reckoned corresponded to their lifetimes. Perhaps it did. I believe, based on the death of Hercules in 1354BC and his 5th successor being Isius, that Isius and Dardanus must have had very long lifespans of approx 250 years. This would makes sense because they were the 8th generation from Ham. Abraham was the 10th generation from Shem, and lived to 175 years old. Terah his father (9th gen.) lived over 200 years. Nevertheless, the king of Babylon at the time of the Exodus (1533BC) was actually Belochus the 13th king of Assyria from Noah, not Ascatades the 21st
[91] Polemo (extracted from Africanus, as quoted by Eusebius) in Cory and Hodges (2003:146) notes: ‘that in the reign of Apis, the son of Phoroneus, a part of the Egyptian army deserted from Egypt, and took up their habitation in that part of Syria which is called Palestine, not far from Arabia.’ Mizraim (Apis, Jupiter Ammon) don’t forget, perished in an assassination in 1469BC. Furthermore, Tacitus (The Histories, Book 5) states: “Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries… Most writers, however, agree in stating that once Egypt was over-run by a pestilential disease, contaminating living bodies, and very foul to behold; Bocchoris [Boccharis] the king, applying for a Remedy to the Oracle of Jupiter Ammon, was ordered to purge his Kingdom, and to remove, into another country, that Generation of Men, so detested by the Deities.” (Tacitus extracted from Clayton (1753:132)). Jupiter Ammon was clearly the High King - Mizraim (inhabiting Argos in Greece) and Boccharis was a petty king or ‘pharaoh’ under his rule at the time. Isis was also reigning as the wife of Jupiter Ammon, yet we are not sure where – probably Thebes. Mount Sinai (incidently) can be located in Arabia (Galatians 4:25) and is today called Jabal al Lawz in Saudi Arabia (Blum, 1998). The Golden Calf makes a whole lot more sense when we consider the Apis bulls were venerated gods of the Egyptians at that time. Stone carvings of bulls have been found on the natural stone altar below Jabal al Lawz. Furthermore, Cush was the land of Saudi Arabia (Numbers 12:1 should read Cushite woman not Ethiopian because Zipporah the daughter of Jethro the Priest of Midian was from Saudi Arabia or Cush).
[92] Josephus calls the city of Avaris by the name of Saba – probably named after this king Sabacon. It was later conquered and inhabited again by a league of Israelites together with Egyptian outcasts.
[93] Lynche (1601).
[94] Mizraim was Menes the Thinite of the ‘First Dynasty’ who Manetho records ‘perished by a wound received from a hippopotamus’. Other sources such as Plutarch suggest a crocodile killed him. Since Manetho’s list of Dynasties was actually understood correctly by Eusebius to be various lists of near contemporary rulers (perhaps of each Egyptian Nome in some cases) Mizraim was also recorded as Ammanemes of the ‘Twelfth Dynasty’ who was ‘slain by his eunuchs’; and both Misphragmuthosis and Armesses or Armais of the ‘Eighteenth Dynasty’. This can only be true if the longevity of Mizraim (and thus the authenticity of the Genesis account of history) is taken as given.
[95] Eudoxus of Cnidus (408BC – 347BC), according to Isaac Newton’s ‘The Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended’, recorded that Bacchus was slain by Typhon.
[96] See Anon (1841). History of the Egyptians: From Rollin, and other authentic sources, both ancient and modern. London: The Religious Tract Society. [WWW]
[97] For more information on the Labyrinth and these 12 halls, see: [WWW] (Accessed on 20/01/12). Shuckford (1824:113) recounts that after Mizraim’s death Egypt was divided into three by his three sons Ananim king of Tanis, Naphtuhim king of Naph (Memphis) and Pathrusim king of Pathros (Thebes). These three may have been among the twelve.
[98] See Gascoigne (2002:129) where the work of Viktor Rydberg’s Teutonic Mythology is summarised.
[99] From Josephus against Apion, extracted from Cory and Hodges (2003:134-135). David Rohl (1995:271) corroborates this with archaeology saying: “Bietak notes that the early Asiatics [found in Avaris] were highly ‘Egyptianised’. The later Asiatics, whom I shall subsequently identify with the Hyksos invaders…were very different. According to Bietak the tombs of this group were ‘purely Canaanite…and showed little Egyptian influence’ – in other words newcomers from the Levant.”
[100] This detail is found in Josephus who wrote in his Antiquities of the Jews: ‘As for the rest, Ludieim, and Enemim, and Labim, who alone inhabited in Libya, and called the country from himself, Nedim, and Phethrosim, and Chesloim, and Cepthorim, we know nothing of them besides their names; for the Ethiopic war, which we shall describe hereafter, was the cause that those cities were overthrown.’
[101] For more detail of this historic battle on the Rhine from Holinshed’s Chronicles, see Gascoigne (2002:87).
[102] Tuscus was called for this coronation ceremony (approx. 1415BC) from Lehabim’s (i.e. Odin’s) Tanais or Asov (Asgaard) in modern day Russia, where his mother Queen Araxa (Aruru, Ninhurshag) clearly had her palace of residence. The line of Italian kings continued: 1. Altheus 2. Blascon 3. Camboblascon (Coribantus of Italy not France - whom Morges the son of Ophren relinquished the throne to as a sign of remorse).
[103] Aubet (1993:154) notes: “On the coins from Tyre [found in Spain], Melqart appears as a sea god, mounted on a hippocampus” [Ed: a chimera of horse and fish]. … “Phoenician trade in the west, then, began under the aegis of Melqart, that is to say of the king of Tyre”.
[104] After Hesperus (Isius, Jasius) was killed by Ophren (Dardanus) his younger brother, Tyrrhenus the son of Lehabim travelled from Western Anatolia to Italy to form the Etruscans under 12 provinces. There was also an interregnum of some time before Allobrox was made king of France and Britain. Then followed in Samothea: 1. Romus (Romanessos?), 2. Paris, 3. Lemanus, 4. Olbius, 5. Galates II, 6. Nannes, 7. Remis, 8. Francus, 9. Pictus and 10. Brutus or Brute (who is believed by some to have arrived in Britain around 1127 BC to found Trojovinium or New Troy – aka London). From Ophren (Dardanus) the line of Trojan kings continued: 1. Erichthonius, 2. Trous, 3. Assaracus, 4. Anchises, 5. Aeneas (Dardans - who fled from burning Troy, killed Turnus king of the Rutulians and married Lavinia daughter of Latinus in Italy), 6. Silvius and 7. Brutus who invaded Britain. In my scheme, and the New Chronology of James and Rohl this would place Brutus around 820 BC. 
[105] Attested by Sallust, Bell. Jug. 1:8, 3 and Mela 3:46 together with Egyptian archaeological iconography just recently found in Spain. See endnote 106.
[106] This Ophren (Iardanus) had a daughter called Omphale who married Lehabim and gave him a son – Athus the Great.
[107] An ancient, uniquely Egyptian symbol of holy metallurgy, plus a stone depiction of Hercules’ circular island of Mezorah near Lixus (together with Hercules standing next to it) has been found by Spanish archaeologists in Cancho Roano, 250 km from the coast of Spain. The market of ancient Tarsessos (biblical Tarshish) has also been found in the old Huelva harbour area on this coast. See TV production: ‘Finding Atlantis’ (2011) by National Geographic. Cf. Figure 3. Many other ancient Spanish artefacts prove beyond doubt that the Spanish buried a famous warrior within a grand circular tomb on an island. For instance, see: The Solana de Cabanas Stele.
[108] Aubet (2001:153) notes: “Some authors have hinted at a direct link between the two pillars of the temple in Tyre and the Pillars of Hercules at the other end of the Phoenician world in the city of Gadir (Arrian 2:17, 1-4).”
[109] Ophren usurped the throne from Hesperus (Hespanus) and gave a daughter called Electra (Roma) to Coritus (Corybantus) in marriage. He then fled to Turkey and founded Dardania (Troy I) under the oversight of Xanthos (Scarmander).
[110] This information is confirmed by Idjennaden (The Kings of Mauretania – Kindle Edition) where he notes: “Another tradition, reported by Sallust, who took it from the books of the Numidian king Hiempsal, says that the Medes (from Media, a country north from Persia), the Armenians and the Persians, all belonging to the army that Hercules led to Spain, had moved in Africa after the death of this hero. The first two peoples would have mixed with the Lybians living on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, while the Persians settled farther west, near the Atlantic Ocean. The peoples resulting from the merger with the autochthonous people resulted in the ancestors of the Numidians for the first group, and in the Maures for the second. The tradition of Hercules in Iberia leading a large army made of different nations, would be a myth behind which there is a truth: the installation of many Phoenician colonies in Spain led by a Melqart, a god worshipped by the Phoenicians and who is the counterpart of the Greek god Hercules.” If this were true, it would explain why Pharaoh Shishak had such a large multi-national army when he invaded Jerusalem (1 Kings 14:25). 
[111] “Agamemnon’s sceptre was made by Vulcan, and by Vulcan given to Jupiter, by Jupiter to Mercury, by Mercury to Pelops, by Pelops to Atreus, by Atreus to Thyestes, and by Thyestes to Agamemnon” (Shuckford, (1824:302)).
[112] See Cooper (1995:84-85) and Gascoigne (2002: 126-130). Woden fled from Asgaard to Sweden when the Romans invaded and hence arose the Anglo-Saxon line.
[113] Eusebius writes: “Sardanapallus… became the final king of the Assyrians. He surpassed all his predecessors in luxurious living and laziness. After a bit [Diodorus] informs that [Sardanapallus] was so dissolute that not only did he ruin his own life, but he wreaked the entire Assyrian state which had endured from time immemorial. Now it happened that there was a certain Arbaces of Median nationality, a virtuous stout-hearted man who was a general of the Medes who were sent each year to Ninus' city. In the course of his military duties, he became friendly with the commander-in-chief of the Median army, who beseeched him to overthrow the Assyrian government. This is what Diodorus relates in book two of the Historical Library.” Indeed, Arbaces the Mede, destroyed the power of the Assyrians and transferred rule to the Medes. Under his rule, keeper of the Royal Gardens (Belesius) intermarries and rules in Babylon as a petty king or satrap - building the Hanging Gardens for his Hammitic wife Attosa. Some of the succeeding Kings of the Medes after Arbaces are named by Cephalion (in Eusebius) as: Maudaces, Sosarmus (974-952BC), Artycas, Deioces (811-771BC), Phraortes (658-637BC), Cyaxares (585-543BC) and Ashdahak (Astyages, Assuerus, Ahasuerus of Dan. 9:1), the latter being contemporary with both Cyrus I King of Persia and Acraganes (Saracus) of Babylon who was betrayed by his rebellious usurper general Thonos Concolerus (Narbopalassar). Is there any biblical confirmation for this revision of the Median Empire? Yes there is. Isaac Newton wrote that: “After the days of Nimrod, we hear no more of an Assyrian Empire ‘till the days of Pul”. Given what we have discovered since Newton’s wrote these words, his statement no longer holds water. There were many kings before Pul. In fact, Nehemiah 9:32 states regarding the Jews: “Now therefore our God, - let not all the trouble seem little before thee that hath come upon us, on our Kings, on our Princes, and on our Priests, and on our Prophets, and on our fathers, and on all thy people, since the time of the Kings of Assyria, unto this day”. By the context of this passage, it is clear that the trouble that Nehemiah is referring to began in the time of their fathers who were given the promised land i.e.  Judges (1140BC) when the Hamitic Assyrian kings failed in the reign of  dissolute king Sardanapallus, not 400 years later with the rise of the Assyrian king Pul (Tiglath-Pileser III) in the 6th C. BC. It is not the rise of the kings of Assyria that this verse refers to at all, it is the end of their ancient rule from Nimrod (the mighty hunter) until Sardanapallus – some 1300 years that this verse speaks of, as many reliable ancient historians clearly also corroborate.
[114] Today, traditional Protestant history is considered little more than ancient euhemeristic mythography (reducing pagan mythology to ‘distorted echoes’ of Hebrew truths and belittling pagan gods as mortal men). The modern alternative to Nanni, i.e. cuneiform studies and ‘deep history’, suggest that the oldest pottery in the world (to date) has a radiometric age of 12,700BC (Rudgley, 1999). This dates, in most biblical chronologies, to roughly 6,426 years older than the very inception of cosmic time itself! Human pottery existing ‘before the beginning of the universe’ is nothing short of farcical. It belongs in a Douglas Adams novel. Yet this is where secular humanism has inevitably led historical scholarship, because nothing in history makes sense, except in the light of creation and the Judeo-Christian Tanakh (Old Testament). Cuneiform tablets are enormously useful for answering certain biogeographical questions, yet their value in establishing an absolute chronology is presently rather limited.
[115] Burgess (2004:125) writes: “Evolutionists have made great efforts to find evidence of such gradual development of technology but with no success…. There are claims of simple weapons like spears and axes being older than 10,000 years but the origin and age of these is very debatable…. If man had evolved, there would have been very intelligent people around for a period of more than 100.000 years because intelligence would not have changed significantly over such a period…. If man had been around for the last 100,000 years, there would have been people with the ability of Newton living in virtually every generation. To propose that there was a period of at least 100,000 years where very intelligent people did not make any significant inventions is absurd in the extreme.”